AIDS : causes, symptoms, transmission and prevention

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. as an evil it has threatened the whole world. it has effected the millions of peoples through out the world. as it not a curable disease, the prevention is better and awareness is needed to entire world.


important facts about AIDS:-

One new HIV infection occurs every 6 seconds of every minute o Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide f every day.
UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update (extrapolated from), December 2005, UNAIDS

In 2005, there were 4.9 million people newly infected with HIV; of these new infections, 700,000 occurred in children under the age of fifteen.

In 2005, 5 million new HIV infections occurred worldwide; approximately 14,000 every day.
UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2005, UNAIDS

globally half of people living with Aids is represented by women.

Scientists are developing and testing topical microbicides that women could apply before intercourse to protect themselves against HIV and other sexually transmitted organisms.
Global Campaign for Microbicides, About Microbicides, March 2006, GCFM

The risk of HIV transmission from mother to newborn is less than 2% if women receive a combination of antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.
National Institutes for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, HIV Infection in Women, May 2004, NIAID

The latest statistics on the world epidemic of AIDS & HIV were published by UNAIDS/WHO in November 2006, and refer to the end of 2006. the estimated cases are as follows..

People living with HIV/AIDS in 2006 – 39.5 million

Adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2006 – 72.2 million.

Women living with HIV/AIDS in 2006 -17.7million

Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2006 -2.2million

People newly infected with HIV in 2006 -4.3million

Adults newly infected with HIV in 2006 -3.8 million

Children newly infected with HIV in 2006 -0.53 million

AIDS deaths in 2006 -2.9million

Adult AIDS deaths in 2006-2.6million

Child AIDS deaths in 2006-0.38 million

since 1981 , more than 25 million people have been died of Aids.

12million orphans are there in Australia.

Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide .

AIDS was first identified in the USA in 1981. The epidemic has now spread to every part of the USA and to all sectors of society.

more than one million people are living with Aids in USA and half million have died after developing Aids.

Aids is a syndrome and HIV is the virus which causes Aids. aids is an incurable disease. millions of people already surrendered for death due to Aids and more millions are getting affected with it. the HIV after entering to the body it multiplies in the host and destroys the immune system , especially the T-lymphocytes, which provides cellular immunity to the body. when the body immune system is destroyed the body is susceptible to infections. the other infective organisms enter the body and leads top different diseases.

the people can become infected when they come to contact with infected objects,sexual intercourse with them , blood contact etc.
the person who is diagnosed as HIV infected is said to be HIV-positive.


when HIV becomes AIDS:-

without drug treatment HIV progress to Aids averagely within 10 years. the who takes a well balanced diet and maintains hygiene can live healthy for some years. while the malnourished can get more infections and may die.

window period: the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection is known as window period.

HIV test:

the individuals blood is tested for HIV enzyme immuneoassay.
detect for HIV antibodies in the sera or plasma, oral fluids or urine.
western blot assay.

in case of positive reaction HIV antibodies are seen in body fluids.

Symptoms of the disease:-

1. unusual weight loos
2. anorexia (not able to take food)
3. fatigue.
4. fever
5. nausea
6. headache
7. respiratory tract,urinary tract or any infections.
8. diarrhea
9. tuberculosis
10. general weakness


stages of AIDS:-

# stage 1: HIV infection is asymptomatic and not recognized as Aids.
#  stage 2: includes minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
# stage 3: includes unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis
# stage 4: includes taxoplasmosis of brain, candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs.

AIDS transmission:-

– an unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person. Sexual intercourse without a condom is very risky, as the virus can enter the body through the semen or sexual fluids.

– Contact with an infected person’s blood If sufficient blood from an infected person enters someone’s body then it can pass on the virus. you may come contact with blood while getting blood transfusion, using a same razor for shave, direct contact with infected material, especially by the health professionals without barrier.

– From mother to child HIV can be transmitted from an infected woman to her baby during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. There are special drugs have been introduced which can prevent this if used in right time.

– while injecting a drug using the same needle, especially the drug abuses are vulnerable to HIV infection.


AIDS won’t spread through:-

– insect / animal bites
– touching, hugging or shaking hands
– eating food prepared by someone with HIV
– toilet seats
– sharing cracker and cutlery

AIDS prevention:-

– have only one sexual partner.
– if necessary to have a sex except partner use condoms.
– don’t use the razors of others.
– don’t get injected by the used needle.
– confirm the blood is tested before transmission.
– abstinence.

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