Definition of Anemia:-
Anemia can be defined as medical condition in which decrease in the red blood cell or hemoglobin less than 13.5 gm% in males and 12 gm% in females.
Causes of anemia:-
* Anemia caused due to blood loss
* Anemia caused due to decreased or fault in the bone marrow
* Anemia caused due to abnormal destruction of red blood cells in the spleen and liver
* Anemia Caused due to Blood Loss
* When the blood loss occurs due to severe hemorrhage, there is loss of red blood cells leads to anemia.
* Alimentary canal conditions such as ulcers, files, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) and cancer
* Prolonged Use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as paracetamol, aspirin etc, causes anemia.
* Menstruation and during delivery, especially if menstrual bleeding is more than normal, antepartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage and if there are multiple pregnancies also causes anemia.
* Severe blood loss in case of injury causes anemia.
* Anemia Caused due to fault in the bone marrow production of red blood cells
Anemia occurs due to following reasons:-
# Sickle cell anemia is also called as hereditary anemia
# Iron deficiency anemia due lack of iron in the food and lack of absorption in the gut
# Vitamin deficiency such as vitamin c and vitamin B
# Bone marrow and stem cell problems that is due to carcinoma
The symptoms of the anemia includes the following:-
* Rapid heart rate
* Heart murmur
* Enlargement of the spleen
* Low blood pressure
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness Rapid breathing
* Maroon, or visibly bloody stools
* Trouble breathing
* Pale or cold skin
* Hair loss,
* Worsening of heart problems
Diagnosis of Anemia:-
* Complete blood count (CBC)
* Red blood count
* White blood count
* Platelet count
* Differential count
* Means corpuscular volume
* Stool guaiac – Tests for blood in stool
* Peripheral blood smear – Looks at the red blood cells under a microscope
* Transferring level – Looks at a protein that carries iron around the body
* Reticulocyte count
* Bone marrow biopsy
* These are the tests done for diagnosis of anemia.
Care at Home:
1. Anemia can be treated at home by providing iron rich diet, adequate bed rest and by taking iron and folic acid tablets etc.
2. If the patient is having stomach ulcer he or she as to stop taking aspirin and medications such as ibuprofen etc.
Medical Treatment of anemia:
Oral therapy for anemia:- The medical treatment includes iron and folic acid tablets, oral solutions like ferrous fumarate and ferrous gluconate etc.
Parenteral therapy for anemia:
Intravenous injections: – It includes administration of the iron injections through intravenously for sudden onset of action, and used to treat severe anemia.
Intramuscular injections: – Here injections are given in a Z track method and it is effective but having more side effects.
Blood transfusion for anemia : – In case of severe anemia the packed cell are transfused.
Oxygen – To ensure that each red blood cell can deliver the maximum oxygen to body tissues
Fluids – To help to elevate blood pressure when blood loss causes blood pressure to drop
Platelets – Replaces missing platelets when bleeding is severe Antibiotics are given to treat infections.
Erythropoietin is given to improve the red blood cell production. Surgery for anemia treatment includes Hysterectomy that is removal of the uterus will help to prevent the loss of the bleeding after the delivery and due to any carcinoma.
Follow-up care in anemia
Follow up care in anemia is very essential to prevent further occurrence of the anemia, it includes the regular check up, and continuation of the medications.
Prevention of anemia:-
Prevention of anemia can be achieved by regular check up and by early detection of the anemia and treatment. And taking iron rich diets like drumstick, green leafy vegetables, papaya, cereals and milk and milk products helps in preventing anemia.
Complications of anemia : Complications of the anemia includes the hypoxia, cardiac problems like cardiac failure, tissue hypoxia and brain anoxia.