It is one of the psychiatric disorder. “is the state of mind characterized by reduced mental activity and dull physical performances”. is a state of intense sadness.which alters the social behavioral adjustment and altered daily living activities.One suffering from depression may feel tired, sad, irritable, lazy, unmotivated, and apathetic. it leads to constant negative thinking,or substance abuse.Extreme depression may end in attempting or committing suicide.

Causes of depression:-

1.genetic predisposing factors:the tendency to develop depression is inherited. it may run through the families, by means of biological or environmental factors. there is an evidence of this type.

2.neurological:Many modern antidepressant drugs change levels of
certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin which leads to neurogenesis and causes depression

3.medical conditions:Certain illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, hypothyroidism,hepatitis, some organic disorders which degenerates the brain function such as
Parkinson disease, Multiple sclerosis etc.

4.dietary causes : certain diets such as intensively formed farmed foods and processed food which contain reduced amount of omega -3 fatty acids. it is believed that it causes depression.

5.alcohol:Alcohol can have a negative effect on mood, and misuse of alcohol leads to depression.

6.drugs :drugs such as tranquilizers, benzodiazepines and sleeping drugs may increase the duration and severity.

7.poor sleep : the poor sleep quality tends to depression. if an individual won’t attain the 4th stage of sleep which has the restoring capacity will go for depression.

8.:Seasonal affective disorder: (SAD) is a type of depressive disorder that occurs in the winter when daylight hours are short. It is believed that the body’s production of melatonin, which is secreted during the dark plays a major part in the onset of SAD.

9.postpartum depression: it occurs in the mother after giving birth to the child. due to the physical pain, stress,it typically sets within three months

social and psychological causes:-

1.low self esteem: the person who have low self esteem self defeating thinking are related with depression.

2.Early experiences: such as death of parents, lovely ones, rejection by someone,neglected by care givers, any chronic illness, sexual abuse, premature ejaculation, traumatic events may trigger depression. experiences: like job loss, prolonged poverty,financial difficulties, long term unemployment,inability to have proper sex, rape, breakage of committed relationships, divorce etc can end with depression.


Treatment of depression varies broadly among individuals and the levels, types, and methods of intervention around the globe varies dramatically. Various types and combinations of treatments are used. the two primary modes of treatment are
medications and some cases electroconvulsive therapy is used.some clients may not response to the treatment need the combined therapy of both medicine and psychotherapy. the careful assessment, counseling, increase of drug dosage is needed.


many medications are there to relieve the symptom of depression.typical first-line therapy for depression is selective serotonin re uptake inhibitor. like citalopram, fluoxetine,sertraline etc
for the attentive care to prevent suicide, the psychiatric hospitalization is necessary.

the proper counseling is necessary to treat the depression in a effective manner. the counselling should be get by the counselor or with the psychiatrist.

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