Among diabetes mellitus refers to several forms of a metabolic disease . In all forms there is an elevated blood sugar levels, which also shows in an excretion of sugar in the urine.In ancient times, was the disease diagnosed by the urine was subjected to a taste test. The sweet urine also led to the name, diabetes mellitus , which in German means “honey-sweet flow”. At the elevated blood sugar levels occur when the body is not sufficient insulin or is not necessary to measure the produced insulin responsive. It can also occur both at the same time.
The hormone insulin in the pancreas produced (pancreas). It is released when blood sugar levels rise after a meal. It is the muscle and fat cells, the “fuel” of glucose, ie sugar, should be made available. At this point in the metabolic process consists of diabetes on. In addition to supplying the cells with glucose, insulin is also responsible for ensuring that the liver stores glucose absorbed from food and checked later releases to keep the blood sugar level. In addition, the liver can produce glucose even if they do not get enough sugar from the diet.
If there is no insulin, so take on not only the muscle is no sugar in the blood, the liver also makes her own sugar because it takes up glucose from the blood does not. You can produce per day up to 500 grams of sugar into the blood and release, so that increases in blood sugar levels even more. The reason for the disturbance of diabetes is classified into two types. In type 1 diabetes, the body destroys the insulin-producing cells even in the pancreas. It is an autoimmune disease . Since the cells are destroyed, the body can produce no insulin, the victims are so dependent for life on an external supply of insulin.
If the body does produce insulin, the hormone does not “properly”, ie at the cell membranes can not bring about the change of glucose from the blood into the cells is called insulin resistance. This is classified as type 2 diabetes. The pancreas can compensate for insulin resistance, although for decades through increasing insulin production, but is eventually overwhelmed. This type was formerly known as adult onset diabetes because it occurred just now, when the insulin the pancreas is no longer sufficient. The term is used less and less, however, because the disease appears more often in young people.
There are other types of diabetes, which are classified according to their cause, and gestational diabetes (GDM), which is only in the pregnancy and occurs immediately after birth disappears. The medical department that deals with diabetes, the Diabetes. To increase the awareness of this disease, the International Diabetes Federation IDF) and have the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced World Diabetes Day, on 14 November will mark. Diabetes is defined according to the WHO also a component of the metabolic syndrome , one of the risk factors for coronary heart disease .