Gastritis : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Gastritis:-

Stomach is  a J  shaped organ present in the abdominal region. Stomach stores and digests the food received through esophagus. The stomach has different types of cells which helps in digestion. Hydrochloric acid is the main juice secreted from the specialized cells.  Gastritis may be Acute or Chronic.

Definition:-

Inflammation of gastric mucosa or stomach is known as Gastritis. The inflammation is caused due to white blood cells accumulated to the gastric acid injured site of stomach.

Causes of Gastritis:

Helicobacter pylori :- Is a bacteria present in the gastric mucosa and is doesn’t infect the gastric mucosa. When the gastric layer is  damaged by excess gastric gastric secretion, helicobacter pylori infects the deep layers of gastric mucosa and leads to Gastritis.

Prolonged NSAIDS use:- Are the Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs, used to relive pain, especially in arthritis. Aspirin and the NSAIDS bind to prostaglandins and helps in relieving pain. On prolonged use, these NSAIDS and Aspirin uses the prostaglandins which covers the gastric mucosa, the destruction of protective layer of gastric mucosa causes Gastritis.

Auto immune disorder and Pernicious Anaemia also causes Gastritis.

Alcohol :- Prolonged Alcohol consumption, causes Gastritis, as the chemicals in the alcohol destroys the gastric mucosa by secreting excess hydrochloric acid. Occasional alcohol doesn’t cause Gastritis, but chronic alcohol consumption leads to gastritis.

Gastritis also developed after major surgery, burns, prolonged medications use, injury to stomach, severe stress, etc..

* Chronic bile reflex also leads to Gastritis.
* Excess caffeine consumption,
* Cigarette smoking,
* Fungal infection of gastric mucosa,
* Parasitic infection,
* Gastric allergens
* Tuberculosis, syphilis and other infections,
* Radiation treatment for cancer,
* Endoscopy and other gastrointestinal procedures,
* Potassium supplements,
* Iron tablets,
* Chronic vomiting,
* Are the different causes of gastritis.

Symptoms of Gastritis:-

* Abdominal discomfort, in the upper part of stomach,
* Gastric hemorrhage, Malena,
* Excess gastric acid production,
* Loss of appetite,
* Belching,
* Nausea,
* vomiting,
* Stomach burning,
* Fever may occur.

Diagnosis of Gastritis:-

Barium meal, and gastroscopy are the common diagnostic tests performed to diagnose Gastritis.

History collection from the patient is more beneficial. History such as taking any medications, consuming alcohol, smoking, any surgeries, stressful situations, any other chronic illness helps in diagnosing Gastritis.

* Biopsy,
* stool antigen test,
* Specific antibody test in the blood,

Are the other diagnostic test to diagnose Gastritis.

Treatment of Gastritis:-

Removing the cause or treating the causative factor of gastritis is a treatment option. To treat infection, antimicrobials are used and to treat Helicobacter pylori infection, Triple therapy is used. Triple therapy is the combination of two antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor. PPI, Clarithromycin, Amoxicillin are the right combinations.

* Avoiding alcohol,
* leaving smoking habit,
* Avoiding excess caffeine,
* Relieving stress.

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