Hypertension pregnancy or pregnancy induced hypertension is the hypertension or increased arterial pressure developed during pregnancy. The changed hormonal levels in the body and physiological changes causes hypertension during pregnancy. The hypertension pregnancy or high blood pressure pregnancy develops after the gestational age of 20 weeks.
Symptoms of hypertension in pregnancy:-
Swelling over ankles, hands and puffiness of face are main symptoms of high blood pressure in pregnant mother. Mother may complaint headache as soon as she wake up from the bed. Dizziness is also present with some discomfort.
Causes of hypertension in pregnancy:-
Persistent elevated hypertension with systolic blood pressure of more than 160 mm of Hg and diastolic blood pressure of more than 110 mm of Hg in pregnant mother is called as pregnancy hypertension or pregnancy induced hypertension.
Hypertension in pregnancy occurs only in some women but not in all pregnant mothers. Mother develops high blood pressure because of increased blood volume during pregnancy. High blood pressure pregnancy is developed into pre eclampsia.
The untreated high blood pressure pregnancy becomes complicated with HELLP syndrome and Eclampsia. Eclampsia is the high blood pressure pregnancy with convulsions. Pre eclampsia and eclampsia affects the health of both mother and growing fetus. only 2 to 3 % of pregnancies becomes complicated with eclampsia.
Treatment of hypertension pregnancy:-
* Immediate control of hypertension pregnancy is needed to protect the fetus and to promote intrauterine fetal growth and development. Untreated high blood pressure pregnancy may become fatal and Labor or child birth becomes very difficult. Hypertension pregnancy is the cause of higher maternal, prenatal mortality and morbidity rate in India.
* Close monitoring of mother with high blood pressure pregnancy is needed to prevent complication for both pregnant mother and baby. No specific treatment is needed if hypertension stays in mild elevated level.
* Hospitalization is needed for health care and to avoid emergency at the time of child birth or labor.
* Now a days stem cell therapy is used to treat pregnancy hypertension.
* Anti hypertensives and anti convulsant are required to treat Eclampsia.