The condition in which acidity of body fluids and tissues is abnormally high is known acidosis.
Due to imbalance in the acid and alkali maintenance, because of body mechanism failure leads to acidosis. When acid base balance is altered leads to acidosis.
Acidosis commonly found in the blood plasma, when PH of blood goes below 7.35 leads to acidity. Cellular metabolic activity and PH of the body fluid determines the acidity.
Respiratory acidosis and Metabolic acidosis are the two main type of acidosis. Kidney and lungs maintains the acid base balance in the body.
Causes of Acidosis:-
When the acid level goes up and base or bicarbonate comes down , leads to acidosis. Kidney and lungs maintain the acid base level in the body. when kidney or lung becomes unable to maintain acid base balance leads to Acidosis.
Types of Acidosis :-
1. Respiratory acidosis is caused when the carbon dioxide level increases in the blood, is mainly due to decreased breathing.
2. Metabolic acidosis is of different types, such as
a. Diabetic acidosis : is also called as ketoacidosis, caused when ketone bodies increases during uncontrolled diabetes.
b. Hyperchloremic acidosis : caused when sodium bicarbonate is lost in the body, in conditions such as severe diarrhoea.
c. Lactic acidosis : is caused when lactic acid level is increased in the body. Lactic acidosis is caused in conditions such as
* liver failure,
* low blood sugar,
* medications such as salicylates,
* excess tiredness, or exercises
* seizures etc.
Kidney diseases and dehydration also can cause acidosis.
Diagnosis of acidosis:-
Arterial blood gas analysis is main confirmation test for acidosis.
Treatment of acidosis:-
Treatment includes maintaining acid base balance with medications and fluids. Oxygen supplementation is indicated in some conditions. Treating the cause of acidosis is important.