Inflammation of front part of eye, the cornea is called as Keratitis. Cornea is the domed, transparent circular part of the front eye which covers the coloured part of eye and lies over the eye pupil. Pain and impaired eye vision are the main complaints of Keratitis patient.
Types of Keratitis:-
There are mainly three types of Keratitis:
1. Superficial keratitis : involves the superficial part of cornea and no formation of scar after healing of keratitis.
2. Deep Keratitis : involves deep layers of eye cornea and formation of scar is seen even after the keratitis heals.
3. Acanthamoeba keratitis : Keratitis caused by amoeba
other types of Keratitis:
1. Herpes simplex Keratitis : Is caused by the infection of herpes simplex virus.
2. Traumatic keratitis : Caused due to any injury or trauma to eye ball or Cornea
3. Interstitial Keratitis : seen after birth
4. Superficial punctate Keratitis : is caused when corneal surface cells dies.
Causes of infective Keratitis:-
* Bacterial causes : Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria can cause keratitis.
* Fungi : Filamentous fungi is the main fungus causes keratitis.
* Herpes simplex virus, the main cause of keratitis.
* Acanthamoeba species is the main Parasite infects eye cornea.
Herpes simplex keratitis : it is caused by the infection of the virus Herpes simplex. The herpes simplex Keratitis involves all the layers of the cornea. HSV first infects the conjunctiva and later infection is transmitted to cornea. Herpes simplex keratitis usually infects one eye, and recurrence is seen if not treated properly. Effective treatment of keratitis is important to save eye sight, using antiviral medications.
Main symptoms of HSV keratitis:-
* chronic inflammation of cornea.
* Tiny blood vessels are developed in the eye,
* later scaring occurs,
* Leads to loss of vision and
Bacterial keratitis : Nocardia is the common bacteria causes bacterial keratitis. Bacterial keratitis is seen more common than fungal Keratitis. when the eye is infected with bacteria, eye lids are stuck together when the person wake up. Pain, redness, sensitivity to bright light, tearing and decreased vision are the main symptoms of Bacterial keratitis.
Treatment of Keratitis:-
Antibiotics, antivirals, and anti fungal agents are used to treat different types of keratitis on the basis of causative organism. broad spectrum antibiotic or combination of medications are beneficial in treating bacterial, and viral keratitis. Medications to treat keratitis are applied directly to the eye, for effective action. Four to six times a day the medications are applied to treat keratitis. proper hygiene should be maintained while administering eye drop.