Kidney failure : symptoms, kidney disease Treatment

Kidney failure :-

Kidneys have the important  role of purifying blood and maintains water and electrolyte balance. Symptoms of kidney failure vary from person to person as per the severity of kidney damage or inability of kidneys to filter blood. The most cases of kidney failure are identified in the later stages, when kidney disease symptoms becomes severe. Significant decrease in the urine production is the main symptoms of kidney failure. Water and electrolyte balance is mainly altered and is the main symptoms of kidney failure.

In the beginning  symptoms of kidney failure  are asymptomatic, later as the kidney function decreases, symptoms of kidney failure  are manifested as decreased urinary output, fatigue, flank pain, etc.

Oliguria is the term used for urine production less than 400 ml per 24 hrs. In chronic kidney failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops slowly and gradually progressed. But in case of acute renal failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops fast. In both acute and chronic renal failure, the symptoms of kidney failure indicates immediate treatment is needed to prevent complications.

Main symptoms of kidney failure :-

1.  Urinary changes,

2.  Swelling or edema,

3.  Fatigue,

4.  Itching and Skin  rashes ,

5.  Metabolic acidosis

6.  Arrhythmias

7.  Shortness of breath

8 . Metallic taste in mouth

1. Urinary changes :

* Decreased urinary output,
* Dark coloured urine,
* Painful micturition,
* Foamy or bubbly urine passing,
* Blood cells in the urine,
* Increased effort for urination.

2. Swelling or edema:

The increased nitrogenous wastes in the body formed because of inability of kidney to remove body metabolic wastes leads to water retention and causes  swelling or edema of legs, ankles, feet, face etc. Generalised edema also occurs. Electrolytes impairment by the kidney also leads to edema, is one of the  kidney disease symptoms.

3. Fatigue and Weakness:

Kidney failure leads to less production of hormone erythropoietin, the hormone which stimulates production of red blood cells in the body. The decreased hormone production by the Kidneys causes low RBC production and while causes anemia. Anemia is symptomized by generalized weakness and fatigue. This symptoms of kidney failure is develops in chronic kidney failure.

4. Itching and Skin  rashes:

are the symptoms of kidney failure occurs because of increased uric acid and elevated nitrogenous wastes in the body, which buildup of wastes in the blood  and causes Itching and Skin  rashes. These symptoms of kidney failure are developed with kidney functions decreased significantly.

5. Metabolic acidosis:

Increased acidity is one of symptom of kidney failure. When kidney becomes unable maintain normal  bicarbonate level in body  causes metabolic acidosis.

6. Arrhythmias:

Arrhythmia are the abnormal conduction of electric impulses of the heart  is caused due to Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is the term used to indicate elevated  level of potassium in the body. Potassium level is increased in body when kidney kidney fails to excrete excess potassium through nephrons.

7. Shortness of breath:

is the symptoms of kidney failure seen when fluid accumulation occurs in lungs, called pulmonary edema. The decreased kidney function leads to fluid and water retention causes shortness of breath with pulmonary edema.

8. Metallic taste in mouth:

is the minor kidney disease symptoms formed as increased wastes in the blood  causes bad breath. The metallic taste is also felt by the patient of kidney failure. This makes individual not to take food. This kidney disease symptoms is associated with most of renal disorders.

Minor symptoms of kidney failure are:-

Nausea and vomiting is also related to bad breath and metallic taste in mouth. Loss of appetite also occurs as the nitrogenous wastes accumulates in the body.

Pain in the lower back is a kidney pain, is the later symptoms of kidney failure. This pain is also called flank pain. Low back pain is the kidney disease symptoms seen with cystic disease of kidney, kidney tumor, poly-cystic kidney disease, etc.

Coldness of extremities due to decreased blood supply and anemia.

Dizziness and uneasiness are minor symptoms of kidney failure. This is because the brain receives less oxygenated blood and severe anemia. These are the minor symptoms of kidney failure.

Treatment:-

Treatment of  underlying cause of kidney failure is important to restore the function of kidney.

Diuretics are given to reduce ankle edema. Immediate diagnosis of kidney failure helps in selecting treatment option as per need of patient and severity of kidney failure.

Dialysis is the emergency treatment for purifying blood and to remove breakdown products of amino-acid from the body.

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