Bacillary dysentery is a kind of dysentery that is normally associated with a severe kind of shigellosis. This is linked with the bacteria belonging to the enterobacteriaceae family. It is normally termed as Shigella infection.
Shigellosisis a result of many types of Shigella bacteria. There are normally three species that are linked with bacillary dysentery. They are shigella sonnei, shigella dysenteriae and shigella flexneri. There is a study in China that shows that the most familiar serotype was Shigella Flexneri.
Salmonella enterica causes Salmonellosi and this has been closely associated with bacillary dysentery. Many times there is a different way the dysentery is diagnosed and this condition should certainly not be confused with diarrhea which is another form of infection of the bacteria. Blood in stools is a major characteristic of bacillary dysentery and this is a result of the invasion of the mucosa by the pathogen.
The transmission of the Bacillary dysenterydisease is fecal oral and is much known for the small organisms that cause the disease. Around 10 such ingested organism cause illness in around 10% of the volunteers and around 500 organisms are seen to affect around 50% of the volunteers. The shigella bacteria totally attack the mucosal cells of the intestine and they normally do not surpass the lamina propria. Dysentery is a reaction when the bacteria go out of the epithelial cell phagolysosome. These increase within the cytoplasm and kill all the host cells.
Hemorrhagic colitis is caused by the toxins of Shga and hemolytic uremic symptoms are a result of the endothelial cells getting damaged in the microvasculature of the glomeruli and the colon. Chronic arthritis is normally said to be caused by an antigen of bacterial nature.
For diagnosis of bacillary dysentery fresh stool is collected and the specimen is inoculated on selective media. The medium that is used is Selenite F borth which allows a continuous and fast growth of the enteric pathogens. This stops the growth of normal esch coli for around six to eight hours. Then a subculture is done on the solid media. All these are then incubated at around 37 degrees for a full day.
There are colorless colonies that are visible and these are then confirmed by hanging drop preparation, gram staining and also reactions of a biochemical nature.
Dysentery is normallyOral rehydration therapy cured by ensuring that the patient has a continuous fluid intake and also applying oral rehydration therapy. This is a treatment that cannot be had as the patient vomits and there is a lot of diarrhea. So sometimes there are requirements for admissions to hospital. This is needed for intravenous fluid replacements. So no kind of therapy of antimicrobial nature should be given till the microbiological studies have been tested and proven. IF the services of the laboratory are not available then it might be necessary to give a combination of drugs including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasite such that an antibiotic should be used to treat the infection.
Anyone with a bloody diarrhea should immediately be treated. The treatment normally begins with proper oral rehydration. So this is normally a solution that is given. It is water mixed with carbohydrates and salt. This prevents the patient from getting dehydrated. There are lot of emergency relief services that help to distribute packets of sugars and also mineral salts that are mixed with water. These are used to restore all the fluids in the children and patients who are dehydrated and who are really seriously sick from suffering from dysentery.
If the patient is suspected with shigella and is not really too serious then the doctor sometimes recommends letting the course take its own time which could be a week. The patient is advised to get all the fluids replaced. If the patient is suffering from serious shigella then the doctor would prescribe antibiotics that would cure this problem. But many shigella strains are now becoming resistant to such drugs and so it is important to have immediately effective drugs especially in developing countries. Doctors sometime also reserve the antibiotics for those who are really in emergency.
There is no vaccine available for this problem and there are many shigella vaccine patients who are in their various stages of development.