Obesity is the medical term used to indicate the excess growth of body. in this condition the natural energy is reserved in the form of fat .obesity invites most of diseases, especially the cardiac diseases and diabetes, infertility etc.it has become the more cause for death(mortality).

obesity is both the individual and public health problem.the obese or excess body weight is very irritable to lead the normal life.the obese people are at risk for serious health problems.About 1.2 billion people in the world are overweight and at least 300 million of them are obese, even though obesity is one of the 10 most preventable health risks, according to the World Health Organization.

Obesity causes :-

Excess eating: over eating is main cause for obesity. the children and some adults cultivate an habit of eating. while eating often and often they use junk foods,curries, spices etc. the excess eating produces excess energy in the body.this energy is stored in the of fatty tissues and increases the girth of the body.high calorie consumption leads to energy imbalance and tends to fat formation. there are many causes for obesity some main cuases are:

1.genetic factors: the persons having genetic inheritance are prone to become obese.
2.endocrine disorders: hypothyroidism causes obesity.
3.eating disorders.
4.certain medications as anti psychotics.
5.sedentary life style.
6.excess fatty food, spicy, curries intake.
7.smoking cessation
8.sleep deprive
9.high glycemic diet.
10.stressful condition.

Some eating disorders are associated with obesity, especially binge eating disorder (BED). As the name indicates, patients with this disorder are prone to overeat, often in binges. A proposed mechanism is that the eating serves to reduce anxiety and some parallels with substance abuse can be drawn. An important additional factor is that BED patients often lack the ability to recognize hunger and satiety something that is normally learned in childhood.
some ethnic groups are prone to get excess body weight.

Obesity complications:-

*  Hypertension
*  Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides)
*  Type 2 diabetes
*  Coronary heart disease
*  Stroke
*  Gallbladder disease
*  Osteoarthritis
*  Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
*  Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon

Obesity controlling:-

*   important method of controlling obesity is to reduce he food intake. avoid excess energy intake.

*  avoid fatty food intake.

*  do regular exercises.

*  give up sedentary life style.

*  reduce non vegetarian food.

*  use staircase instead of lift.

*  control junk and curry foods.

*  use more vegetables in the diet.

*  lessen the consumption of milk products.

*  less calorie intake

*  engaging in some work to control eating habit.

If these goals are not achieved, pharmacotherapy can be offered. The patient needs to be informed about the possibility of side effects and the unavailability of long-term safety and efficacy data.

Drug therapy may consist of sibutramine,orlistat,phentermine etc. in sever cases of obesity, stronger drugs such as Amphetamine and Methamphetamine may be used on a selective basis. In patients with basal metabolic rate ( BMI) > 40 who fail to achieve their weight loss goals (with or without medication) and who develop obesity-related complications, referral for bariatric surgery may be indicated. The patient needs to be aware of the potential complications. the orlistat is the medication most commonly prescribed for diet/exercise-resistant obesity.

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