Typoid fever: causes, symptoms, treatment and diagnosis

Typhoid fever  is the enteric infection caused by the bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. vaccination typhoid prevents typhoid.Typhoid  fever is common worldwide and is also caused as Enteric fever or bilious fever.

Transmission of bacteria salmonella typhi occures through the ingestion of food and water contaminated with fecal matter of infected person. After entering the body, salmonella typhi perforates the intestinal wall and is phagocyted by macrophages. This makes salmonella typhi to become resistant to body immune power. Then the organism spreads to different parts of the body through lymphatic system. Salmonella typhi is a gram negative organism grows best at 37 degree celsius temperature.

Causes of Typhoid fever:-

  • Anybody can be infected with typhoid fever, but the travellers visits the infected places are at risk. People live slum and unsanitary environment get typhoid fever easily.
  • Ingestion of contaminated food and water with infected fecal material, causes typhoid fever. After entering intestine, salmonella typhi spreads to blood stream and establishes infection.
  • Salmonella typhi infects the gallbladder directly after entering the blood stream.
  • Living with typhoid carriers, also cause typhoid fever.
  • People who travel  in trains, refugees, may get typhoid fever.
  • Poor environmental sanitation also leads to Typhoid fever.
  • Eating road side selling foods, contaminated by flies, causes typhoid fever.


Symptoms of Typhoid fever:-

Typhoid symptoms are observed after two or three weeks the bacteria enters the body. Even though Typhoid is not a fatal disease, if not treated may lead to Death.

* Fever : is the main symptom of Typhoid. Fever up to 104 degree F, along with heavy sweating.
* Headache : severe headache is common with typhoid fever.
* Rose coloured spots on the trunk,
* Diarrhea, ( non bloody),
* Gastroenteritis,
* Bradycardia,
* Malaise,
* Epitaxis,
* Eosinopenia,
* lymphocytosis,
* General discomfort,
* uneasiness,
* loss of appetite,,
* weight loss,
* chills,
* delirium,
* confusion, hallucination,
* typhoid more than two weeks can cause

Diagnosis of  Typhoid fever:-

  • Blood test : WIDAL test  is the common test performed to diagnose Typhoid fever. In the first week, widal test will be negative and later test becomes positive.  WIDAL test is the specific test for salmonella antibodies against antigens O- somatic and H- flagellar.
  • Bone marrow culture,
  • Stool test for Salmonella typhi,
  • Blood Platelet count,
  • ELISA test, for Vi antigen in urine, etc

Treatment of Typhoid fever:-
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection, need to be treated with antibiotics.

* The antibiotics used to treat Typhoid are
* Ampicillin,
* Chloramphenicol,
* trimethoprim- sulfamethaxazole,
* Ciprofloxacin etc..

The duration of typhoid infection continues up to 3 weeks, if not treated. If not treated Typhoid becomes Fatal.

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