Urine test, urinalysis facts

Urine test is the medical procedure conducted to test urine glucose, infection of urinary tract and to identify presence of blood cells, protein or micro organisms in the Urine. Urine test is one of the important diagnostic test performed to diagnose urinary tract infection, and diseases of urinary tract. Urine test is also called  Urinalysis.

Urine test is beneficial in diagnosing wide range of diseases. Urine strips are also used for urine test and colour change gives the expected result. Urine strip is dipped in the urine and abnormal products in urine such as sugar, blood cells and protein are identified. Home pregnancy test is usually conducted as Urine pregnancy test using a pregnancy strip, to which a drop of urine is placed. The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in urine changes colour and pregnancy can diagnosed very easily.


In Suspected following cases urine test is done:-

* Cystitis,
* Urinary tract infection,
* post surgical patient,
* Nephritis,
* Nephrotic syndrome,
* Kidney infection etc…

Collection of sterile urine for the test is important and the patient undergoing test should get an idea how to collect sterile urine. In some cases mid stream urine is needed to be collected. So medical person should explain how to collect midstream urine.

Urine colour and appearance : diet, medicines and some diseases may change urine colour. Appearance or clarity of urine is normally clear.

Odor : normally has no odor or slight nutty odor. Unpleasant smell is found with some infection or diseases. Fruity smell indicates diabetic ketoacidosis.

Specific gravity of Urine : normal range is 1.010 to 1.030.  Ion concentration of urine is found in specific gravity. ketoacidosis or presence of some protein in urine elevates specific gravity.

PH – 4.8 to 7.5 is normal : Different PH such as acidic and alkaline have a role in kidney stone formation with abnormal PH.

Poly urea : Urine is collected and measured. Is the common symptom of Diabetes.

Protein : Normally no Proteins present, albumin is common with any abnormality. Fever, hard exercise, pregnancy, and kidney diseases may cause proteinuria.

Ketone bodies : Negative in normality. Starvation and diabetic ketoacidosis causes ketone bodies in urine.

Glucose : negative is normal. Glycosuria is symptom of Diabetes.

Urobilinogen,

Bilirubin,

Red blood cells : Injury to kidney, bladder or part of urinary tract, injury during any procedure such as urinary catheterization, infection causes Red blood cells in urine.

White blood cells : Infection through urinary tract, or kidney diseases leads to white blood cells in urine.

HCG : Human chorionic gonadotropin, normally absent. This hormone is found in urine when mother becomes pregnant.

Microscopic urine test / examination:-

Is done for identification of bacteria or infective agents,

* To identify urinary casts,
* To check crystals in urine,
* Squamous cells,
* Blood cells in urine,
* Yeast cells or parasites in urine
* Are diagnosed using Microscopic urine test.

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