Prostate cancer treatment: surgery

Prostate cancer treatment:

Prostate cancer is the most commonly seen cancer in the old men.  Most of prostate cancer are treated with surgery and prostate surgery has made easy the life of patients . Most of the men with cancer can live normal life and don’t show symptoms for entire life span. Studies have shown that most of the men live normally even with prostate cancer but of mild in nature.

Prostate surgery is done to remove the prostate or cancer cells of prostate. surgery may be done to remove and test lymph nodes in surrounding area and  to visualize  if  the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues. Prostate surgery is done to correct urinary problems that are because of  tumor pressing on the urethra.

Prostate surgery is done on the basis of stage of prostate cancer, age of person, and general health of that person. Treatment for prostate cancer is surgery.

Prostate cancer surgery choices are:-

  • Radical prostatectomy : is a surgical procedure to remove whole prostate and surrounding tissue having cancer cells. It is an open surgery  in which large incision is made in lower abdomen.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is done passing a tiny camera inside the cavity and special instruments to remove the cancer prostate.  lymph nodes around the prostate are also removed as they have signs of cancer and may spread to other parts of the body. Sampling of lymph nodes is called as lymph node biopsy. Laparoscopic surgery has become the famous treatment for prostate cancer.
  • Removal of prostate can cause erection problems and urinary bladder problems. but after prostate surgery most of men get relief from these problems.
  • Complete relief from symptoms of prostate cancer is possible with prostate cancer surgery. Treatment of prostate cancer or cure is effectively possible with surgery and medical treatment of prostate cancer may just relieve the symptoms.

Placenta previa : causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment

Placenta previa

Placenta previa

Placenta previa is the pregnancy disorder characterised with improper placement of placenta in the lower uterus, covering the cervix completely
or partially. (placenta is the structure which nourishes the growing fetus)

One in 200 pregnancies will report placenta previa.

Three types of placenta previa

1. Complete placenta previa : Placenta completely covers the uterine mouth, and cervical OS.

2. Partial placenta previa : Cervix is partially covered by placenta.

3. Marginal placenta previa : Placenta marginally extends up-to cervix.

The causes of placenta previa

  • Abnormal placental formation,
  • Multiple pregnancy,
  • Abnormal uterus,
  • Scarred lining of the uterus.

Placenta previa commonly occurs in mothers who have

  • Fibroid uterus, or uterine surgery to remove fibroid,
  • Abnormal uterine development,
  • Increased number of pregnancies or Multi-parity.
  • Multiple pregnancy mother,
  • Scarring of uterine wall because of previous pregnancy, abortions, uterine surgery, or cesarean suction.

Diagnosis of placenta previa

The important diagnosis made for placenta is Ultrasound scanning. The scanning reports uterus is soft and relaxed, and in some cases the fetus may be mispositioned.

Symptoms of placenta previa

  • Sudden, painless, bleeding in the birth canal,
  • Usually Bleeding occurs at the end of second trimester.
  • Heavy bleeding occurs, and bleeding may stop itself.
  • Bleeding may recover after some days or a week.

Treatment of placenta previa:-

* If the previa is complete, absolute bed rest is necessary.
* When bleeding is severe intensive medical care is necessary.
* Monitor vital signs.
* After severe bleeding, blood transfusion is very important.
* Cesarean suction is needed for the delivery of baby, when mother have placenta previa.

Single umblical artery facts

Umbilical Cord
  • IN normal pregnancy, the fetal umbilical cord contains three umbilical blood vessels. Two umbilical arteries, and one umbilical vein. Even one umbilical artery is needed to handle blood supply to placenta.
  • The cause of single umbilical artery is unknown.
  • Normal fetus will have three blood vessels. But 1 to 5 % babies will have only two blood vessels, one umbilical artery, and one umbilical vein. This is called single umbilical artery.
  • The ultrasound scan confirms the single umbilical artery. If the fetus doesn’t show any abnormalities, the baby will take normal birth.
  • Some studies says the 25 % single umbilical artery baby may have chromosomal abnormalities. If single umbilical artery is confirmed during ultrasound scan,  tests such as Amniocentesis and others are done for further diagnosis.
  • Single umbilical artery baby may have or may not have any other abnormalities.

Underactive thyroid disease: causes, symptoms and treatment

Underactive thyroid disease:

When the thyroid secretes low thyroid hormone is called as under active thyroid or hypothyroidism . Thyroid is one of the important endocrine gland situated in the neck region  in front of the trachea joins to larynx. Thyroid measures 4cm height and 3 cm width. Thyroid secretes the hormones called T4- thyroxine and T3 – triiodothyronine. These thyroid hormones have very important vital functions in the body. Low thyroid levels should be treated to prevent metabolic disorders.

Control of body metabolism is the main function of thyroid gland. The thyroid hormones are less secreted when thyroid becomes under active and is a thyroid disease. Under active thyroid leads to hypothyroidism. Body metabolism is altered with under active thyroid gland. Thyroid function is to regulate body metabolism, and the change in body metabolism causes altered vital signs. Thyroid weight gain is common with under active thyroid or hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) : Controls the production of thyroid hormone. Pituitary gland secretes and controls the release of thyroid stimulating hormone.

Causes of under active thyroid

Iodine insufficiency : Iodine is the major element needed to secrete thyroid hormone in the body. Iodine deficiency in diet causes under active thyroid. Iodine supplementation with Salt helps in preventing Iodine deficiency.

Autoimmune thyroiditis : Autoimmune disorder destroys the thyroid and leads to less secretion of thyroid hormones.

  • Anti thyroid drugs and radio iodide therapy causes under active thyroid.
  • Congenital hypothyroidism, babies have at the time of birth.
  • Older people are more prone to have under active thyroid.
  • Women are more affected than males.
  • thyroid tumor, or thyroid cancer,
  • Autoimmune disorder also causes Hypothyroidism.
  • Certain medications such as  lithium carbonate and amiodarone causes under active thyroid.

Symptoms of Under active thyroid

Symptoms of under active thyroid develops gradually and may vary from mild to severe.

  • Tiredness and feeling sleepy,
  • Cold body temperature,
  • Dry and pale skin,
  • Thin and coarse hair and brittle nails,
  • Mental depression,
  • Weight gaining,
  • Muscle weakness and reduced movements,
  • Hoarse and croaky voice,
  • Decreased memory power,
  • Constipation is associated with under active thyroid,
  • Problems related to fertility,
  • Irregular menstrual periods, and
  • Slow heart rate

Treatment of Under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine replacement  and levothyroxine in tablet form is the main treatment for Hypothyroidism. Lower dose is started first and dose of medication is gradually increased later. Blood test have very significant value in fixing the dose for an individual with under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism. Side-effects are less with levothyroxine and symptoms such as anxiety and weight loss are seen on prolonged replacement of levothyroxine hormone. Periodical medical check up is suggested for patients with under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism. Normal thyroid levels are shown in the healthy individual.

Pituitary gland : functions and importance

Pituitary gland

Pituitary gland

Pituitary gland is an important endocrine gland in the body. Pituitary gland is very small in size measures the size of Pea nut. Pituitary gland is an external protrusion from the hypothalamus, situated in the bony cavity called sella turcica. The pituitary gland locates in the pituitary fossa, situated in the sphenoid bone in middle cranial fossa. Pituitary gland is the master gland among endocrine glands because pituitary controls the functions of the other endocrine glands

The pituitary gland secretes several hormones and maintains homeostasis of the body,  and produces tropical hormones which stimulate other endocrine glands to release certain hormones. Pituitary gland  is functionally connected to the hypothalamus. Adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis are the two lobes of the pituitary gland. Adenohypophysis is also called as anterior pituitary gland and neurohypophysis is called as posterior pituitary gland. Each lobes have different functions and secretes different hormones.

The  anterior pituitary gland synthesizes and secretes important endocrine hormones, which includes ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH (growth hormone), FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) , and LH (luteinizing hormone). These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary regulated by hypothalamus. Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by a special capillary system.

Oxytocin and Antidiuretic hormone are the hormones secreted by posterior pituitary.  ADH helps in maintaining water balance in the body and Oxytocin helps in contraction of uterus during labor or child birth and maintains lactation in mother.

Intermediate lobe is the lobe of thin layer between anterior and posterior pituitary gland. This gland is related to melanocytes and controls skin pigmentation.

Hormones  plays a major role in maintaining various bio chemical changes in the body. Some hormones are released when an individual grown up or attains puberty. It has been proved that love, affairs and some emotional changes occurs because of hormones produced by pituitary gland. Hormones produced during young age regulates the desire to love, affection, etc. Steroids or steroid hormone leads to  puberty and physiological changes in the body.

Functions of pituitary gland

  • Growth regulation,
  • Controls Blood pressure,
  • Uterine contraction with release of oxytocin during labor,
  • Maintains pregnancy with some hormones,
  • Production of milk from mammary glands,
  • Regulates thyroid function,
  • Helps in metabolism of food,
  • Osmolarity regulation, etc are main functions of pituitary gland.

So the pituitary gland is the important gland has various functions in the body.

Thyroid nodule: causes, facts, biopsy and treatment

Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodule are lumps which commonly grow within thyroid gland. These lumps are the abnormal growths of thyroid tissue which are situated at the edges of thyroid gland and are felt as lump on throat by feeling external palpation. Sometimes thyroid nodule can be seen as a lump in the front of the neck in thin individuals who have less subcutaneous fat deposition.

Causes,  Facts related to thyroid nodule and thyroid biopsy

  • Women are more prone to have thyroid nodule .  1 woman out of 15 has risk of getting thyroid nodule.
  • 1 out of  40 young men has risk of developing thyroid nodule.
  •   discomfort
  • Thyroid nodule are benign tumors and non cancerous cells. Only five percent may develop carcinomas.
  • More than 95 percent of all thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous growths)
  • Some  thyroid nodule  are cysts  filled with fluid rather than thyroid tissue
  • People aged over 50 years have chance of developing thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is done to diagnose the nature of thyroid nodule, as a benign or malignant. Thyroid biopsy is the important diagnostic test for confirmation of thyroid nodule.
  • complete family physical examination, measurement of serum TSH level and FNAB of the nodule are the diagnostic tests done before treatment of thyroid nodule.
  • Ultrasound thyroid scan is done to notify the nature and extent of thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is the procedure done to get the sample tissue for diagnostic studies. Thyroid biopsy is done in the minor OT with aseptic techniques. Care should be taken to avoid damage to blood vessels or thyroid gland while conducting thyroid biopsy. Needle biopsy is the common thyroid biopsy type. Biopsy specimen is tested in the laboratory and nodule nature is identified as benign or malignant.

Treatment of thyroid nodule

Experienced physicians need to treat the thyroid nodule. Treatment based on the nodule is benign or carcinogenic, metastatic. Hormone replacement may done after removal of affected thyroid lobe or thyroid part. Surgery is done to correct or remove thyroid nodule,  concerns about cosmesis should be taken by the surgeon. Patient need  some days of hospitalization and she can lead normal life. Regular medications should be taken as per doctor’s advice. Follow the medical care and have a healthy soft diet. Liquid diet is given for some days after thyroid nodule surgery.

Urinalysis Urine drug test Urine protein test Proteinurea


Urine test or urine analysis is the assessment of urine nature, colour, glucose in urine, passing urine test for various diagnostic procedure.

Different components of urine are measured for diagnosis of various urinary disorders. Urine test is done for urine analysis of protein, glucose, etc..

Urine protein test : Urine analysis for protein is called urine protein test. protein in urine is found with excessive work, urinary tract infection etc. Protein in urine is caused as proteinurea.

Urine drug test : Identifying drug elimination and drug concentration in uire is called Urine drug test.

passing urine test : Urine passing and collecting should be hygienic, and should not be contaminated. Contaminated urine can alter the test result.

Glucose urine test : Glucose in urine is found in diabetic patients. Normally urine glucose test is negative.

Pregnancy urine test : HCG – Humun chorionic gonadotrophin is present in urine during pregnancy. Pregnancy urine test is the easy and most common to identify wether the mother is pregnant or not. Pregnancy urine test can be done in home using a strip available in medical shops or pharma.

Pass a urine test : Pass urine into a clean container to provide urine for diagnostic test.

Urine test results : Result can be obtained very soon. Microscopic examination may be dalayed by some hours. Pregnancy urine test results are very fast and can get results in some minutes.

Cocaine urine test : This test is done for identification of cocaine in urine. The result is possitive in narcotic drug abused individuals.

Polyurea : Excess passing of urine is called as polyurea. poluurea is the main symptom of diabetes mellites.

Glucose urea : Urine with glucose is called as Glucose urea and is also sign of diabetes.

Best urine test : Urine test is best for diagnosing many disorders of urinary system.

Buy urine test : The strips used for glucose test and pregnancy test also gives correct result and patients can buy urine test strips.

Urinalysis is the assessment of urine colour, odour, urine glucose test, ketone bodies, red blood cells in urine, White blood cells in urine, Drak urine are analysed during Urinalysis. Nephritis, glomerulonephritis, Kidney infection, Pyelonephritis, in all these diseases urinalysis is done for diagnosis of disease condition.

Urine concentration is increased during

  • Dehydration
  • Excessive sweating
  • Heavy exercise or sweating
  • Oliguria,
  • Diarrhea,
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Vomiting
  • Starvation etc.

When urine concentration is increased the colour of urine becomes dark and specific gravity of urine may go up. Incresed concentration may lead to acidic urine.

Gross hematuria : causes, symptoms, treatment

Gross hematuria

Gross hematuria

Gross hematuria, is the presence of plenty of red blood cells in the urine as the red blood cells can be seen in naked eyes. presence of red blood cells in urine is known as Hematuria on medical term.

Gross hematuria is contrast to microscopic hematuria in which blood is visible only under a microscope. Gross hematuria an urinary abnormality, should be diagnosed earlier and treated properly. Gross hematuria may associated with pain or without pain. Infections and stones in the urinary tract are the common cause of Gross hematuria with pain. Painless hematuria also has many causes. Appearance of blood only time in urine may not be a serious disorder. Even a Strenuous exercise, Drugs such as aspirin also causes blood in urine.

Causes of Gross hematuria

Beeturia :- blood in urine seen after the ingestion of beetroot is called beeturia. Is not a disorder and is caused due to excretion of betalain reddish pigment.

Red blood cells enters the urine from glomerulus while blood is filtered in the glomerulus apparatus. Abnormality by the glomerulus to filter blood leads to red blood cells in the urine.

  • Inflammation of bladder or prostate,
  • Rupture in the urethra,
  • injury to urinary bladder,
  • Presence of polyp or tumor in the urinary tract,
  • Malignant tumors,
  • Kidney or ureter stones,
  • Enlarged prostate,
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inherited diseases,
  • Injury to kidney, etc

Symptoms of gross hematuria

  • Visible red blood cells in the urine,
  • Red or brown colour urine,
  • Painful urination with red blood cells,
  • May be associated other disorders.

Treatment of Gross hematuria

Treating the underlying cause is the main treatment. If urinary tract infection is present, antibiotics are prescribed. Any abnormality of glomerulus or Kidney diseases should be treated. 

White blood cells urine : causes, diagnosis, urine tests, treatment

White blood cells urine

White blood cells urine

An inflammation of kidneys or urinary bladder leads to presence of blood cells in the urine. Presence of foreign bodies, stones, immune disorders, Tumor or mass in the urinary tract, and allergy to some substances may cause white blood cells in urine. An internal injury or hemorrhage in the genitourinary system also causes blood in urine, may be white blood cells or red blood cells. Even a healthy individual may also have one to three white blood cells or red blood cells in urine, without any infection.

Usually white blood cells are accumulated in the body where an infection is present, to fight with micro organisms which causes disease or infection. So in most of the cases presence of urinary tract infection is the main cause of white blood cells in urine. The pus at the site of infection at any where in the body is formed due to collection of white blood cells to infected area.

The infected individual usually doesn’t complaint that they have blood cells in urine. The blood cells in urine may not be seen to naked eyes, but can be observed with naked eyes in gross hematuria. After clinical examination of urine only the protein or blood cells, or microorganisms present is urine are observed.

Causes of white blood cells in urine

  • Cystitis : infection of bladder,
  • Kidney infection,
  • Infection of genitourinary tract,
  • Trauma or injury to urinary tract,
  • Post surgical infection,
  • Medications used to treat arthritis, etc
  • Are the main causes of blood cells in urine.

Urine test / diagnosis for blood cells

Urine sample is collected from the infected individual and urine should be collected in a clean container as per doctors advice.

Collected urine is send to medical laboratory for urine culture test and to identify presence of any microorganisms. If the organism is identified correctly, the correct antibiotic is used to treat urinary tract infection.

Kidney X-ray is also performed to identify the any infection to kidney.

Cystoscopy the direct visualization of urinary bladder is done using cystoscope.

Leukocyte esterase : test shows presence of white blood cells in urine.

Electron microscope, and some other chemicals are used for diagnosis of urine.

Treatment of white blood cells in urine

Treatment is given on the basis of cause of infection or disease. Cephalosporins are the antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infection. Adequate rest is essential for treating urinary tract infection.  Follow up the medications and doctors suggestions. If any sever complaints such as painful micturition, dark yellow urine, urinary incontinence, you can complaint to the doctor.

Urine test, Urinalysis, Indication diagnosis Urine test

Urine test

Urine test is the medical procedure conducted to test urine glucose, infection of urinary tract, and to identify presence of blood cells, protein or micro organisms in the Urine. Urine test is one of the important diagnostic test performed to diagnose urinary tract infection, and diseases of urinary tract. Urine test is also called as Urinalysis.

Urine test is benificial in diagnosing wide range of diseases. Urine strips are also used for urine test and colour change gives the expected result. Urine strip is dipped in the urine and abnormal products in urine such as sugar, blood cells and protein are identified. Home pregnancy test is usually conducted as Urine pregnancy test using a pregnancy strip, to which a drop of urine is placed. The presence of humun chorionic gonadotrophin in urine changes colour and pregnancy can diagnosed very easily.

Indications of Urine test

In Suspected following cases urine test is done.

  • Cystitis,
  • Urinary tract infection,
  • post surgical patient,
  • Nephritis,
  • Nephrotic syndrome,
  • Kidney infection etc…

Collection of sterile urine for the test is important and the patient undergoing test should get an idea how to collect sterile urine. In some cases mid stream urine is need to be collected. So medical person shold explain how to collect midstream urine.

Following are main Urine tests / test

Urine colour and appearance : diet, medicines and some diseases may change urine colour. Appearence or clarity of urine is normally clear.

Odor : normally has no odor or slight nutty odor. Unpleasant smell is found with some infection or diseases. Friuty smell indicates diabetic ketoacidosis.

Specific gravity of Urine : normal range is 1.010 to 1.030. Ion concentration of urine is found in specific gravity. ketoacidosis or presence of some protein in urine elevates specific gravity.

PH – 4.8 to 7.5 is normal : Different Ph such as acidic and alkalic have a role in kidney stone formation with abnormal Ph.

Polyurea : Urine is collected and measured. Is the common symptom of Diabetes mellitus.

Protien : Normally no Protiens present, albumin is common with any abnormality. Fever, hard exercise, pregnancy, and kidney diseases may cause preoteinurea.

Ketone bodies : Negative in normality. Starvetion and diabetic ketoacidosis causes ketone bodies in urine.

Glucose : negative is normal. Glucoseurea is symptom of Diabetes.



Red blood cells : Injury to kidney, bladder or part of urinary tract, injury during any procedure such as urinary catheterization, infection causes Red blood cells in urine.

White blood cells : Infection through urinary tract, or kidney diseases leads to white blodd cells in urine.

HCG : Humun chorionic gonadotrophin, noramally absent. This harmone is found in urine when mother becomes pregnant. Are main urine test.

Microscopic urine test / examination

Is done for identification of bacteria or infective agents,

  • To identify urinary casts,
  • To check crystals in urine,
  • Squamose cells,
  • Blood cells in urine,
  • Yeast cells or parasites in urine
  • Are diagnosed using Microscopic urine test.