Alfa Thalassemia : causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment


Thalassemia is a autosomal recessive blood disease, is an inherited genetic disorder. Thalassemia is a group of genetic disorders of blood, characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Due to abnormal hemoglobin, the number of hemoglobin decreases in the blood and destruction of RBC takes place due to genetic inheritance. Thalassemia is also called as Mediterranean anaemia.

Description of Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which quantitative abnormal hemoglobin, i.e. very less number of globin in hemoglobin. Genes which produce the protein present in hemoglobin called GLOBINS are altered in case of Thalassemia. Hemoglobin is produced from two  sets of genes present on different chromosomes and produces two different pairs of protein.  One set of protein is alpha and another is Beta.

Every hemoglobin molecule has both alpha and beta protein. Connection of two alpha proteins to two beta proteins in the hemoglobin enhances binding and releasing of oxygen. Alpha protein is controlled by chromosome number 16 and beta protein is controlled by chromosome number 11. In thalassemia, when any one of these genes fails to produce any one of the protein, leads to Thalassemia. In alpha Thalassemia, one or more genes are missed and in case of beta thalassemia, genes are present but fails to produce normal hemoglobin.

Types of Thalassemia

Alpha thalassemia : Usually found southeast Asia . In this type of thalassemia, alpha protein synthesis is blocked due to genetic abnormality, resulting in abnormal hemoglobin production. Chinese, people form Asia and black people are usually affected form Alpha Thalassemia. Untreated, severe form of alpha thalassemia leads to still birth.

Beta thalassemia : Commonly found in mediterranean region and instead of beta protein is present, it becomes unable to produce beta protein, and causes beta thalassemia.

Causes of Thalassemia

  • Genetic inheritance,
  • Gene mutation,
  • Children may show the anaemia after age of two, due to inherited genes from parents,
  • Alteration in the hemoglobin chain,
  • Family history of thalassemia, etc.

Symptoms of Thalassemia

  • Fatigue,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Icterus or Jaundice,
  • Facial bone deformity.

Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia

On physical examination confirms Enlarged spleen,

Peripheral blood smear test shoes abnormal, small red blood cells,

Anaemia is confirmed from complete blood count.

Abnormal hemoglobin are found on Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Treatment of Thalassemia

Regular blood transfusion are necessary to treat severe Thalassemia. Folate supplements are also provided. Iron supplements and oxidative drugs are avoided in patients who receive blood transfusion.

Chelation Therapy : Is needed to remove iron form the body, from the patient who received regular blood transfusion.

Bone marrow transplantation is also used as a super speciality treatment of Thalassemia.

Mouth sores : causes and treatment

Mouth sore

Number of factors causes bacterial, viral or fungal infections of mouth. The mouth sore are the painful infections or rupture of the mucus membrane of mouth is called as mouth sore. A loose orthodontic wire, improper implantation of denture, sharp edge of broken teeth causes mouth sore.  Mouth sore are the common mouth problem that makes an individual very difficult to eat and even to drink hot or cold drinks.   Mouth sore may occur as  symptoms of a particular disease or disorder. Examination of mouth by  a dentist is needed to visualize  mouth sore that lasts a week or longer.

Common mouth sores and treatment

Canker ulcers

these are small ulcers which have red border and white or grey base. These mouth sore appear on the mucus membrane of the mouth and are not contagious. Number of ulcers may vary from one or more mouth sore. No exact cause of canker ulcer is known. it is believed that stress, fatigue, allergy to certain substances causes mouth ulcer. No specific treatment is needed to treat mouth sore or Canker ulcers. Topical anesthetics and antimicrobial mouth rinses  are used to treat mouth sore of this type. Avoid hot and spicy food until the healing of mouth sore.

Cold sore

These  sore are called as herpes simplex or fever blisters. Usually occurs on the soft membrane of lips, or under the nose. Cold or flu infection of mouth is the common cause of cold sore of mouth. Mouth pain is common with cold sore and is the recurring mouth problem in some individuals. The sore heals normally and in some recurring cases antivirals are prescribed.


these are white, thick patches appears inside the cheeks, mouth gums and tongue. Tobacco users are more prone to have such mouth sore and excess cell growth occurs on the sores. Biopsy of mouth sore is done for further diagnosis and treatment. Advice the patients to avoid tobacco and cause of lesion is found and treated.


Is the fungal infection of mouth because of infection of candida albicans, which reproduce in the mucus wall of mouth. Denture wearers are more prone to have candidiasis mouth infection is the common problem of mouth. Antibiotic treatment is needed to reduce the symptoms and to treat the mouth sore. Provide oral hygiene to prevent the further complications.

Diabetes mellitus : Causes, Symptoms, Classification

Meaning of Diabetes

“Diabetes  is one of the chronic hormonal disorder in which the imbalance between the insulin secretion by the pancreas and glucose utilization by the body cells”.

As a metabolic disorder it has affected the millions of people entire the world. If once an individual got the diabetes  it is highly difficult to cure it completely but it can be managed effectively.

The pancreas secretes an hormone called insulin. And the glucose is obtained to the body by means of ingested food. the insulin helps in transport of glucose to the tissues.and it also helps in the utilization of glucose by the cells.

Concept of Diabetes

If the insulin secretion is decreased or the tissues are resistant to the insulin i.e. the tissues won’t utilize the insulin. In this condition there is an increased amount of glucose in the body, is known as hyperglycemia. it is the foremost symptom of diabetes .

Classification of Diabetes

On the basis of its nature diabetes  is classified as follows.

1. Type 1 diabetes 
: it is usually seen in children or in younger ones. in this type the insulin secretion is less than normal. Due to the decreased pancreatic insulin secretion, the glucose is not utilized by the body.the replacement of insulin is the treatment for this type.Type 1 diabetes  is seen in hereditary cases. if once it diagnosed life long therapy should be taken.

2.Type 2 diabetes : it is usually seen in adults. in this type there is a normal insulin production but the the tissues are resistant. the deficient uptake of insulin by the tissues leads to increased level of glucose in the blood. the type 2 usually occurs in obese persons. the oral hypoglycemic agents are used as treatment. it can be controlled effectively by medications,exercise, diet and other life style modifications.

3. Gestational diabetes : it occurs in pregnant women. with effective treatment it disappears after the child birth.

Causes of Diabetes

1. Hereditary causes

2. Obesity

3. Increased glyceride level

4. Increased cholesterol in body

5. Pancreatic disease

6. Sedentary life style

7. Sever mental stress

8. Idiopathic i.e. unknown.

Symptoms or signs of Type 1 DIABETES

1. THIRST : is due to increased glucose level in blood draws the water from the tissues. the tissues hydro insufficiency leads to thirst.

2. POLY UREA :when the person drinks the excess of water to compensate thirst, it leads to excess of urine output.


4. POLY PHAGIA : when the tissues doesn’t get sufficient energy, the person eats more.

5. GLUCOSE UREA : the excess of glucose in the blood is passed in the form of urine.

6. NAUSEA AND VOMITING : due to altered metabolism.

7. DEFICIENT HEALING OF WOUNDS : is due to lack of insulin, which helps in healing process.

Childhood diabetes : causes, types, symptoms of children diabetes

Childhood diabetes

Diabetes can affect individuals irrespective of age, sex, or race. Type 1 Diabetes is the  common type of childhood diabetes. Statistics shows that 90 percent of the children (under the age 16) are affected with Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes in children or childhood diabetes is caused because of pancreatic  inability to produce insulin.

The  rate of beta cell ( Pancreatic cells) destruction in type 1 diabetes is rapid in  infants and children and slow in  older adolescents and adults. ketoacidosis as the first indication of type 1 diabetes is present in both children and adolescents. signs of diabetes in children are  post-meal hyperglycemia, fasting hyperglycemia that rapidly develops to severe hyperglycemia. Main signs of diabetes in children includes  ketoacidosis in the presence of any infection in body.

Causes of childhood Diabetes

cause of type-1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes in children is caused by immune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of pancreas.Production of antibodies against proteins in the islets cells of pancreas is found in children. But in  adolescents, antibodies are produced before some months of onset of diabetes.

The presence of antibodies against proteins of islets such as GAD-65, ICA, IAA and IA-2, have formed the basis for trials and easy to predict who will develop type 1 diabetes. Children with high titer auto immune antibodies and those with more than one antibody are more prone to develop type 1 diabetes.

In addition, young age and being a first degree relative of someone with type 1 diabetes place children at high risk. In general, 70 percent of people with new-onset diabetes will have a positive antibody if only one antibody is tested, whereas 90 percent will have at least one antibody when all four are measured.

cause of type-2 diabetes

Cause of  type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is because of  obesity or overweight, insulin resistance, and  a family history of type 2 diabetes, are important causes of type 2 children diabetes. Diabetes blood sugar  balance is important to prevent hyperglycemia or increased glucose level.

Childhood diabetes effects normal life of growing children. Some children becomes dull and looks depressed. Dullness and in activeness in children are important signs of diabetes in children.

Cause of diabetes in children are different. Cause of Type 1 diabetes in children  is because of pancreatic abnormality to produce insulin. Cause of type 2 diabetes in children are obesity, family history of diabetes, etc.

Children diabetes diagnosis is very important to start treatment to prevent complications. childhood diabetes onset is not found exactly as the symptoms seen later. Childhood diabetes risk is high to child as the childhood is the growing period. Improper health care and failure to maintain diabetes blood sugar leads to worsened symptoms and complications.

Symptoms of diabetes

More or less symptoms of children diabetes are similar to that of symptoms of diabetes in adults. Most of children are asymptomatic to some years and diagnosing diabetes in children is very critical and important.

The symptoms of childhood diabetes include

  • frequent urination and Increased thirst
  • extreme hunger
  • unusual weight loss
  • irritability
  • repeated infections
  • slow healing of wounds
  • bruises under skin
  • numbness in hand’s and feet
  • tiredness
  • behavioral problems
  • headache increases with mild work also,
  • tummy pains etc

Facts about childhood diabetes

  • Avoid children to become obese as it helps in prevention of type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 1 diabetes in children is common and appropriate insulin administration to maintain diabetes blood glucose in normal range is important.
  • Insulin administration to treat type diabetes should be taught to parents and to grown up children also.
  • Diabetes children may oppose to get injected regularly. Motivation by the parents and health education by the health care member should be given to child.
  • Presence of HLA genes is found in nearly 70 % of type 1 diabetes affected children.
  • Childhood diabetes should be well treated for the better health of child.
  • Follow up medical care and administer medications regularly.

Fibula fracture : Causes , Symptoms, Treatment of Fibula fracture

Fibula fracture

Complete or partial breakage in the continuity of fibula is called as fibula fracture. Fibula is the bone below the knee along with tibia. Fibula displacement and fibula fracture are the common injuries to the fibula bone. Severe ankle sprains causes  fibula fracture. The fibula fracture may occur at any part of the fibula bone. Nearly 15 % of  body weight is borne by fibula and the fracture is not severe as other weight bearing fractures.

Causes of Fibula fracture

  • Football players are prone to have  fibula fracture,
  • Falls in children, players, and old ages also causes fibula fracture.
  • Most of fibula fractures are not identified easily and some individuals live with fibula fracture with mild pain for long time.
  • Some individuals feel pain at fibula even after some months of fibula fracture.
  • Patients with fibula fracture can walk with minor discomfort as the fibula bone bears less body weight.
  • Orthopedic surgeon should assess the fibula fracture carefully to know the severity of fibula fracture.
  • Hairline crack in the fibula or small fracture in fibula is caused because of stress and is called as stress fibula fracture.
  • Muscles traction and twisting forces placed on the fibula bone from the surrounding muscles  causes stress fibula fracture.
  • Fibula fracture may be associated with tibia fracture or ankle fracture.

Signs and symptoms of Fibula fracture

  •   pain in the injured lower leg
  • Tenderness and swelling in the area below knee, near calf muscle,
  • Bleeding and bruising at fractured site,
  • Difficulty  to bear weight on  injured leg,
  • Visible bone fragments  are seen along with damage to skin in case of complete  fracture,
  • Numbness of lower leg,
  • Coldness of the affected leg and distal end  of  fracture site, as the blood supply is altered.

Treatment of Fibula fracture

Treatment is given on the nature of fracture, and severity of fibula fracture. Elevation of fractured  leg is the Initial treatment  for fibula fracture, and ice packs are applied to  relieve pain and reduce swelling of injured area. Reduce further dislocation of injured bone. Immobilization of affected victim is important.

If the bone is broken, plaster cast is applied to enhance healing of fibula fracture, the duration of cast application is up to 8 weeks. When the fibula fracture is compound, surgery is done to correct the deformity and a rod, plate, or screws are fixed at fibula fracture site as per need. Walking with crutches is suggested during recovery period. A plastic stirrup-type brace, cast, or walking boot is often recommended to treat fibula fracture.

Exercises should be done after the fibula fracture is healed. Exercises such as stretching and strengthening of injured  leg, etc are done and exercises should enhance blood supply to the area. Physiotherapy is very helpful in restoring leg function after treating fibula fracture.

RICE principle is used to reduce swelling, pain and inflammation, in case of acute fractures.

  •   Rest- Adequate rest is needed to correct the deformity, and walk should be assisted with crutches to lessen the weight on injured leg.
  •   Ice-  ice pack is applied  every two to three hours of 15 to 20 minutes during the first 72 hours of fibula fracture.
  • Compression- Use an ace wrap on the leg. Start at the bottom of the toes and wrap up past the knee.
  • Elevation-  ankle of fibula injured leg should be elevated above the level of victims heart while sitting or lying down, to enhance venous return to heart from extremity.

Pregnancy weight gain tips for normal and obese mothers

A number of physiological and metabolic changes that occur during pregnancy are responsible for pregnancy weight gain. Gaining adequate weight during pregnancy by eating a healthy balanced diet is very essential for well development of growing fetus. The diet during pregnancy should provide all nutrients that mother needs. Pregnancy weight gain is related to height weight and body mass index of pregnant mother.

The pregnancy weight gain happens as the baby grows, mother consumes good nutrients to serve the baby. Generally pregnant mother have to consume extra 100 to 300 more calories in order to serve the growing fetus.

Health care provider will tell how much weight the pregnant mother should gain during pregnancy. Pregnancy weight gain in normal mothers is nearly 9 to 10 kg. Mothers who are weak before pregnancy should increase the pregnancy weight gain than normal pregnant women. The mother who is obese before pregnancy should increase pregnancy weight gain by 3 to 4 kg. The medical advice is needed to maintain correct pregnancy weight gain.

Pregnancy weight gain is distributed as follow

  • Baby                                       – 8 pounds
  • Placenta                                – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Amniotic fluid                    – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Breast tissue                       – 2 to 3 pounds
  • blood supply                       – 4 pounds
  • uterus growth                     – 2 to 5 pounds
  • Increased fat in body      – 5 to 9 pounds
  • Total                      – 25 to 35 pounds.

Tips for weight maintenance

  • Eat frequent but small diet with good nutrients.
  • eat easy snacks on hand, nuts, raisins, cheese, crackers, dried fruit, and ice cream etc.
  • Use pulses and grams in food as it provides adequate protein to the body.
  • Milk and milk products can be used adequately as they provide most of the vital nutrients to the body and help in maintaining weight gain.
  • Eat fiber rich diet to  avoid constipation
  • green leaf vegetables are very essential food for pregnant mother to have an ideal weight gain and to provide enriched nutrients to pregnant mother.

Increased pregnancy weight gain! what to do ?

If you have increased weight during pregnancy in the first trimester or early pregnancy stage, don’t try to reduce the weight by avoiding food. Back ache and drowsiness are the common problem with increased pregnancy weight gain.  Use food with less fat and calories and use much green leaf vegetables to avoid further weight gain during pregnancy. Consult your doctor and ask him what all you can eat and in what quantities.

Male impotence : causes and treatment of Impotence

Male impotence

Inability to have a successful intercourse because of erectile problem is called as Impotence or Male impotence.  most of the men experiences impotence at any part of life. Impotence may be of  short time or long time and effective treatment is needed to treat impotence. All reproductive age group may develop male impotence but the age group above 65 are at risk of developing male impotence.

Impotence can be treatable at any age of an individual. Now a days successful treatment for male impotence is available and the treatment helps  most men with male impotence return to normal sexual activity.

Male impotence Causes

  • Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide have impotence.
  • It is be believed that keeping mobile phones in pocket causes impotence.
  • Diseases like diabetes mellitus, endocrine gland disorder, kidney disease,  etc.
  • Problems in the  structure of reproductive organ or its surrounding tissues may cause impotence.
  • Damage to arteries, smooth muscles and fibrous tissues, surgery or an injury that interfere with nerve impulses transmission or blood flow to the reproductive organ.
  • Psychological upset or emotional stress,  factors like depression, anxiety, grief causes male impotence.
  • As a side effect of medications such as  antihistamines, antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, etc.
  • smoking and obesity which alters blood flow to the  arteries.
  • alcoholism or drug abuse for long time.
  • In men aged  over 65 years, impotence can be caused decreased levels of testosterone hormone, and Hormone replacement therapy is given to treat this male impotence.

Treatment of male impotence

Most of the men won’t get treatment at all. Only ten to twenty percent will get treatment for male impotence.Number of treatment options are available for impotence depending on the cause of male impotence.  Treatment  of male impotence includes reduce stress, counseling and sexual therapy to help solve any sexual problems,  changes in life style, weight control to reduce obesity, alternative  medication to substitute medications which causes impotence, exercises to strengthen pelvic floor, use of an oral medication, a vacuum device or injection or insertion of medicine to sexual organ. Surgical operation is done to correct the deformity of male impotence in some males.

Hemoglobin count : low and high hemoglobin count


Hemoglobin is the specialized protein rich in iron, present in the red blood cells, and  helps in transporting respiratory gases. The presence of Hemoglobin gives red colour to blood. The normal hemoglobin level in body is 14 to 17 gm/dl in males and  10.8 to 16 gm /dl in females.  The hemoglobin count for newborns is higher than elder ones i.e. 17-24 gm/dl.

Hemoglobin count

Now a days hemoglobin count is done using machines, which are used for blood test. In the machine red blood cells are broken down and hemoglobin is exposed. With chemical mechanisms the hemoglobin count is done.

Hemoglobin is made up of four globular protein subunits are attached by protein bond. Proteins in the hemoglobin attracts oxygen from alveoli of lungs. Combining with oxygenated blood oxyhemoglobin is formed and it  travels  entire bloodstream. The oxygen is carried to distant parts of body and delivered at tissue level. At tissue level, hemoglobin absorbs the carbon dioxide and forms carboxyhemoglobin is carried to lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide.

Low hemoglobin count

The reduced hemoglobin level than normal range is called as low hemoglobin, and low hemoglobin count  indicates a low red blood cell count is called as Anemia. The low hemoglobin level indicates nutritional deficiency. Weakness and fatigue are the main symptoms of low hemoglobin level. Individuals with other systemic diseases have risk of low hemoglobin count. Immediate medical care is needed to prevent tissue hypoxia and other  complications.

The causes of low hemoglobin count or anemia

  • Loss of blood  during traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer etc.
  • Nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B12, folate deficiency),
  • Bone marrow diseases
  • Abnormal hemoglobin such sickle cell anemia.
  • Iron and folic acid deficiencies,
  • Vitamin  deficiencies
  • Erythropoietin deficiency
  • Red blood cells destruction with blood transfusion
  • Severe blood loss
  • Hypothyroidism, and deficiency  of testosterone  hormone
  • kidney failure, cancer,  Crohn’s disease and other Chronic diseases,
  • Autoimmune diseases,
  • lead poisoning
  • malnutrition
  • chemotherapy and
  • use of certain medications,

High hemoglobin count

Hemoglobin count is said to be high when hemoglobin count  is above-average level in blood. Increased hemoglobin count more than 18 grams per deciliter  of blood for men and 16 g/dl for women is called high hemoglobin count. The number of red blood cells may be normal but the hemoglobin count may be raised in some cases.

Hemoglobin  is the vital component of red blood cells. Hemoglobin has oxygen-carrying capacity, transports oxygenated blood from lungs to tissues and deoxygenated blood from tissues to lungs.  If the Hemoglobin count decreases, blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity also decreases. The tissues receives less oxygen and severe reduction of Hemoglobin count leads to tissue hypoxia.

High hemoglobin count indications

  • Congenital heart diseases
  • Cor pulmonale
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Increased RBC formation etc..

Arthritis treatments : Arthritis exercises , arthritis diet

Arthritis treatment

Arthritis treatment is very important to relieve pain of millions of arthritis patients worldwide. The treatments for  arthritis diseases includes rest,  relaxation, exercise, arthritis relieving diet, medication, health education etc.  The proper body mechanics also helps in avoiding joint stress and are the best arthritis treatments.  Medications are used to relieve pain because of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments is

  • To Relieve joint pain
  • Minimize risks of arthritis treatment
  • To avoid further development of arthritis,
  • Guidance to patients about arthritis management,
  • To Prevent work disability.

Surgery is done in severe cases of arthritis.  The treatments for arthritis is as per need of arthritis patient and doctor  treatment plan, which includes number of therapies as arthritis treatments.  Emu oil is used for relieving arthritis pain.  Colchicine  and allopurinol  are the drugs commonly used for arthritis treatments.

Fatigue is the most common problem of arthritis patients. Patients with  rheumatic arthritis disease should maintain a  balance between rest and activity. When an arthritis  Patient experiences pain or fatigue during exercises  should  take a break or rest. Prolonged rest also leads to muscle stiffness and it leads to failure of arthritis treatments.

Arthritis Exercises

The regular physical exercise  reduces  joint pain and stiffness,  increase flexibility, muscle strength, and helps in easy movement of joints. Regular walk also helps in weight reduction and this is the best treatments for arthritis.  Don’t start exercise program blindly, and should get perfect education from the doctor. Exercises recommend for arthritis treatments includes:-

Range-of-motion exercises: (e.g. stretching joints)  To help maintain normal joint movement, maintains normal joint flexibility, and relieves muscle stiffness.

Strengthening exercises: To maintain or increase muscle strength. Strong muscles  supports and protect joints affected with arthritis. Weight lifting exercises are the good exercises for arthritis treatments.

Aerobic  exercises: To improve cardiovascular fitness, helps to control weight on joints, and to improve overall well-being of joint function. Studies also proved that aerobic exercise are best treatments for arthritis and reduces inflammation of  joints along with improvement in movement. Walking, bicycle riding are treatments for arthritis under aerobic exercises.

Arthritis diet

Well-balanced diet  is the main part arthritis treatments. Regular exercises and  a well-balanced diet helps arthritis patients to maintain their body weight and to have healthy joints. Weight reduction helps  in avoiding joint stress and reduces joint tear, hence risk of joint pain and swelling are reduced. Obese arthritis patients should reduce their body weight, along with other treatments for arthritis. These are the treatments for arthritis.

Kidney failure : symptoms, kidney disease Treatment

Kidney failure

Kidneys have the important  role of purifying blood and maintains water and electrolyte balance. Symptoms of kidney failure vary from person to person as per the severity of kidney damage or inability of kidneys to filter blood. The most cases of kidney failure are identified in the later stages, when kidney disease symptoms becomes severe. Significant decrease in the urine production is the main symptoms of kidney failure. Water and electrolyte balance is mainly altered and is the main symptoms of kidney failure.

In the beginning  symptoms of kidney failure  are asymptomatic, later as the kidney function decreases, symptoms of kidney failure  are manifested as decreased urinary output, fatigue, flank pain, etc.

Oliguria is the term used for urine production less than 400 ml per 24 hrs. In chronic kidney failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops slowly and gradually progressed. But in case of acute renal failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops fast. In both acute and chronic renal failure, the symptoms of kidney failure indicates immediate treatment is needed to prevent complications.

Main symptoms of kidney failure 

1.  Urinary changes,

2.  Swelling or edema,

3.  Fatigue,

4.  Itching and Skin  rashes ,

5.  Metabolic acidosis

6.  Arrhythmias

7.  Shortness of breath

8 . Metallic taste in mouth

1. Urinary changes

  • Decreased urinary output,
  • Dark coloured urine,
  • Painful micturition,
  • Foamy or bubbly urine passing,
  • Blood cells in the urine,
  • Increased effort for urination.

2. Swelling or edema

The increased nitrogenous wastes in the body formed because of inability of kidney to remove body metabolic wastes leads to water retention and causes  swelling or edema of legs, ankles, feet, face etc. Generalised edema also occurs. Electrolytes impairment by the kidney also leads to edema, is one of the  kidney disease symptoms.

3. Fatigue and Weakness

Kidney failure leads to less production of hormone erythropoietin, the hormone which stimulates production of red blood cells in the body. The decreased hormone production by the Kidneys causes low RBC production and while causes anemia. Anemia is symptomized by generalized weakness and fatigue. This symptoms of kidney failure is develops in chronic kidney failure.

4. Itching and Skin  rashes

are the symptoms of kidney failure occurs because of increased uric acid and elevated nitrogenous wastes in the body, which buildup of wastes in the blood  and causes Itching and Skin  rashes. These symptoms of kidney failure are developed with kidney functions decreased significantly.

5. Metabolic acidosis

Increased acidity is one of symptom of kidney failure. When kidney becomes unable maintain normal  bicarbonate level in body  causes metabolic acidosis.

6. Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia are the abnormal conduction of electric impulses of the heart  is caused due to Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is the term used to indicate elevated  level of potassium in the body. Potassium level is increased in body when kidney kidney fails to excrete excess potassium through nephrons.

7. Shortness of breath

is the symptoms of kidney failure seen when fluid accumulation occurs in lungs, called pulmonary edema. The decreased kidney function leads to fluid and water retention causes shortness of breath with pulmonary edema.

8. Metallic taste in mouth

is the minor kidney disease symptoms formed as increased wastes in the blood  causes bad breath. The metallic taste is also felt by the patient of kidney failure. This makes individual not to take food. This kidney disease symptoms is associated with most of renal disorders.

Minor symptoms of kidney failure are

Nausea and vomiting is also related to bad breath and metallic taste in mouth. Loss of appetite also occurs as the nitrogenous wastes accumulates in the body.

Pain in the lower back is a kidney pain, is the later symptoms of kidney failure. This pain is also called flank pain. Low back pain is the kidney disease symptoms seen with cystic disease of kidney, kidney tumor, poly-cystic kidney disease, etc.

Coldness of extremities due to decreased blood supply and anemia.

Dizziness and uneasiness are minor symptoms of kidney failure. This is because the brain receives less oxygenated blood and severe anemia. These are the minor symptoms of kidney failure.


Treatment of  underlying cause of kidney failure is important to restore the function of kidney.

Diuretics are given to reduce ankle edema. Immediate diagnosis of kidney failure helps in selecting treatment option as per need of patient and severity of kidney failure.

Dialysis is the emergency treatment for purifying blood and to remove breakdown products of amino-acid from the body.