Incontinence, Incontinence Products, Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the uncontrolled, involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder. The bladder has a contractive muscles called detrusor muscles. These muscles contraction leads to induce the urinary urge. The abnormality of bladder due to aging or other disease leads to invonluntary leakage of urine form the bladder.

Causes of urinary incontinence

Anatomical or physiological factors which alters the urinary bladder causes Urinary incontinence.

Aging : The weakening of bladder associated with aging leads to urinary incontinence in some old age people and never all.

Injury to spinal cord : Neural damage to spinal cord loses the ability to control neural impulses which pases to bladder. This loss of neurological controle to urinary bladder leads to urinary incontinence.

Menopause and weakned pelvic muscles in women may cause Urinary incontinence.

prostate surgery : in the males leads to urinary incontinence.

Caffeine, or medications, such as cold medications also causes temporary urinary incontinence.

Urinary Incontinence in oldage

Incontinence or Urinary incontinence is common in oldage people. Due to aging process urinary bladder loses it’s capacity to regulate contraction and relaxation of bladder. This abnormality leads to leakage of urine.

Inability to controle urinary urge, i.e. the person can’t hold the urine untill he reach to toilet, is also termed as Urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence troubles lot in the night.

Urinary incontinence in women

Usually the normal individuals can hold the urine 3 to 4 hours. while the bladder loses it’s ability to controle, the urine starts to leak involuntarily. Womens are more sufferers from urinary incontinence, as they undergo changes such as aging, child bearing, menopause, etc. These physiological changes in women leads to urinary bladder weakness or bladder abnormality. so womens are more prone to have urinary incontinence after the age of 45 years. Most of the womens neglect the urinary incontinence and won’t get treatment at all. Only some womens go for treatment.

Types of urinary incontinence

Stress incontinence : Increased abdominal pressure, over stress associated with phobia, and loss of urine during physical activity are related to stress incontinence.

Overflow incontinence : Constant dribbling of urine occures and bladder is not emptied fully.

Urge incontinence : When the bladder fills beyond the limit, the urine starts to leak and there is urgent need to void invontarily is called overflow incontinence.

Acute and Temporary urinary incontinence is caused by

  • Child birth,
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Post surgical days
  • Panic or phobias
  • Medication side effect
  • Limited mobility

Chronic incontinence is caused byBladder muscle weaknessBlocked urethra ( due to BPH – benign prostatic hyperplasia)Neurological disorderBirth defectsWeakness of pelvic flore musclesInjury to brain or spinal cordUrethral prolapse

Don’t neglect the urinary incontinence and get the proper pharmacological treatment.

Tuberous sclerosis: causes, symptoms and diagnosis

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous Sclerosis is a genetic disease, forms benign tumor in the brain and other vital organs of the body such as heart, kidney, lungs, eyes, skin etc. Tuberous Sclerosis mainly affects the central nervous system.

Tuberous Sclerosis is manifested by seizures, convulsions, behavioural problems, mental retardation, skin disorders, pulmonary and renal disorders, etc. Tuberous Sclerosis may be present at birth but the symptoms are seen during growing period of the child. The gyri, foldings of brain becomes thick and firm in the TSC affected  individual.

Causes of Tuberous Sclerosis

Genetic cause is the main cause of tuberous Sclerosis. Inheritance of autosomal dominant genes, causes Tuberous Sclerosis.


  • Learning difficulties are the main symptoms of tuberous sclerosis, found in 50 % totally affected.
  • Less intelligent quotient, ( IQ ), when large part of brain is involved.
  • Autism is seen in nearly 25 % of Tuberous Sclerosis affected.
  • Behavioural problems,
  • Difficulty in adjustment to environment,
  • Aggression,  OCD, etc.

The Tuberous Sclerosis individual Will have the symptoms of renal, pulmonary or integumentary system on the basis of tumors presence on those organs.

Diagnosis of Tuberous sclerosis

  • Family history helps in diagnosing tuberous Sclerosis, as it helps in knowing any history of Genetic cause.
  • Woods Lamp is used to visualise the skin, mouth, etc..
  • CT scan, MRI scans provides clear image of the affected part.
  • Ultrasound Scan is used to find tumors in the kidneys,
  • Echo cardiogram, Fundoscopy, are the diagnostic tests performed for Tuberous Sclerosis.

Aphasia: Definition, Causes and Treatment



“Aphasia is defined as inability to communicate verbally either partially or completely”.

The person with aphasia has difficulty in not only  speaking but also in writing, reading, and recognizing the objects. And also unable to understand what others’ say. Aphasia is mainly caused because of an abnormality in the brain, which affects the speech center in the brain. The conditions such as less oxygen supply to brain,  Traumatic injury to brain, stroke, cause Aphasia.

Causes of Aphasia

1. Stroke is the main cause of aphasia, as the speech center in the brain loses its function. Nearly 18 to 23% of stroke affected people suffer from Aphasia.
2. Head injuries,
3. Encephalitis, and other brain infections
4. Traumatic injury to head and brain.

Most cases of Aphasia are temporary and treated within few days. Complete recovery is possible with effective treatment. But the permanent Aphasia is not treatable, and still millions of Americans are suffering from some form of Aphasia.

Treatment of Aphasia

Treatment aids in improving the communicating ability of the person.

Rehabilitation is given by speech – language pathologist. Aphasia is treated on the basis of extent of brain damage.

Tongue lesions : sore tongue, causes, treatment

Tongue lesions

Lesions occur on the tongue are considered as tongue lesions. Most of tongue lesions are healed without treatment. If tongue lesions are not healed for long time, biopsy is taken and test is conducted to identify any underlying cause.

Causes of tongue lesions

  • Vitamin deficiencies, are common cause of tongue lesions.
  • Malnutrition,
  • iron deficiency anaemia,
  • pernicious anaemia,
  • HIV infection,
  • Oral candidiasis,
  • Local infection,
  • trauma to tongue,
  • Side effects of medications,
  • beverages or tobacco induced lesion,
  • tongue malignancy lesions are the causes of tongue lesions.

Treatment of tongue lesions

  •   Treat the underlying cause such as vitamin deficiencies.
  • Apply analgesic cream on the tongue lesions,
  • Systemic analgesics,
  • Mouth washes with analgesic effect,
  • Avoid mucus irritants such as tobacco, hot foods or drinks,etc.
  • Maintain good mouth hygiene and dental hygiene.
  • Use mouth rinses such as lidocaine 2% topical solution, etc.

Kidney transplantation and care after kidney transplant

Kidney transplantation

Kidney transplantation

Dialysis is given to patient after kidney transplant. Transplantation of donors kidney to treat end stage renal disease is called as kidney transplantation. Usually living donors kidney are used for transplantation, and a biological relation between donor and recipient is important.

Need for kidney transplantation:- End stage kidney diseases such as,

  • Malignant hypertension,
  • Infections, diabetes mellitus and
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • genetic causes include polycystic kidney disease

these problems lead to very less glomerular filtration and in kidney transplantation is needed.

Kidney transplantation and care

The kidney transplanted individuals should undergo Peritoneal or hemodialysis until the transplanted kidneys starts to work properly. Infection control is also very important as the chance of infection is very high after kidney transplantation.

Insulin Administration in Children And Care

Insulin Administration

Insulin administration

The children who have juvenile diabetes mellitus, the special care is needed by parents to administer insulin in children. Because children may not have adequate knowledge to administer insulin by themselves. Most children are depending on their parents to get health care. Although insulin is not secreted in children, the insulin injection is must for children who have Juvenile diabetes mellitus. First the parents should learn how to administer insulin, when should be given, and the dosage of insulin. This helps in maintaining normal blood glucose in the children. Insulin is usually given just before food, because insulin takes some time to act, as soon as the food is observed, the insulin starts working. Don’t skip or miss insulin injection administration,

Few important facts

  • Do the regular exercises,
  • Don’t administer over dose of insulin,
  • Get the clear tips from doctor, how to prevent Hypoglycemia,
  • Precautions to be taken in Diabetes affected children.
  • Avoid getting injuries,
  • Don’t use sharp instruments, for domestic use.
  • Use the right, good footwear, and don’t walk in bare foot.
  • Check for any lesions or injuries on any part of the body.

Surgery : Need, Surgical View , Tips


Surgery is the term used for operations conducted with surgical instruments and incision.

When disorders are not cured with medicine, some disorders need surgical repair. So surgery has a significant role in saving life of patient.

More than 15 million people undergo surgery in US.

Why is surgery done?

  • To relieve pain ,
  • To correct the disorder,
  • To restore the health,
  • To diagnose the disease,
  • To reduce the symptom,
  • To improve body function,
  • To save the life.

Previous days all surgeries are conducted with incision. The technological improvements have led to Laser surgery, without incision.
Some surgeries which are conducted using large incisions have become small incision surgeries.

As the surgery is a incision procedure, the pain is obvious with surgery. Due to use of Anesthesia the pain is completely or partially absent at the time of procedure. but after surgery the pain is present to some extent. Analgesics will relieve the pain.

The blood loss is common with most of surgeries. Infection may occur along with surgery if proper asepsis is not taken.

Tips to The Doctor

Explain the procedure in brief to patient before surgery.

Asepsis should be maintained strictly to avoid infection.

Review all the steps before surgery to avoid mistakes or confusion.

Check and confirm all vital signs of victim are right during surgery.

After care of patient is also important.

Tips to the patients

Don’t panic about the procedure.

Ask your doubts to doctors, and be relaxed.

Follow the instruction given by doctor.

Maintain hygiene after surgery, and take all measures to avoid infection.

Adjust to the conditions after surgery for some days.

Take medications and food as per doctor’s instructions.

Tongue cancer treatment

Tongue cancer treatment

Tongue cancer is treated as per severity of cancer. The early detection of cancer of tongue cancer helps in treating it effectively.

The treatment options

  1. Surgery,
  2. Chemotherapy and
  3. Radiation therapy.

Surgery is done for very small tongue cancer.

If whole tongue has got cancer, removal of tongue by surgery is the option.

When the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the neck, the part of tongue affected and the lymph nodes are removed. Radiation is used as a combination with surgery.

Radiation therapy is used along with surgeries in some cases of tongue cancer.

Problems occur with eating,  speaking and drinking with tongue cancer surgeries and treatment.

Appendicitis during pregnancy and Management

Appendicitis during pregnancy

Appendicitis during pregnancy

One in thousand pregnancies will get appendicitis. Even appendicitis is not difficult to treat in non pregnant state, appendicitis in pregnancy is difficult to manage.

The appendicitis pain is not felt at the exact region  and is difficult to diagnose during pregnancy.

Due to uterus distension, the colon and small bowel is displaced.  The uterine contraction prevents the abscess formation.

So nearly in 20 % pregnant mothers, Appendix is ruptured and causes peritonitis.

Delayed care may lead to pre-mature  labor  or Abortion.

In pregnancy, early appendectomy is indicated.

If appendicitis is diagnosed near term, or labor, Extraperitoneal Caesarean section and appendectomy to be done in order to prevent Peritonitis.

Therapeutic abortion is never indicated for appendicitis during pregnancy.

Tansabdominal drains are placed of needed after surgery.

Early detection of appendicitis during pregnancy helps in preventing complications.

Vasectomy: Side Effects, Complications & Facts

  • Vasectomy side effects are rare as the modern health system have made the procedure easy and safe. Some complications occur but not life threatening and need medical attention to prevent and treat vasectomy side effects and complications.
  • Vasectomy is an effective way of contraception and is the most accepted and effective way of birth control all over the world. vasectomy side effects are not life threatening. The side effects are mild in most cases and similar to all surgical procedures. Only in rare cases the side effects and complications of vasectomy arise.
  • Pain : pain after surgery is the common side effect of vasectomy. discomfort may also be present for a week. Mild analgesics are given to treat pain as vasectomy side effects. Some men experience chronic pain.
  • Infection : infection and inflammation at the site of surgery is common. Redness, bruising and swelling are common as vasectomy side effects. Increased temperature should be treated with antipyretics.
  • Granuloma (benign lump)  is the non cancerous lump that develop in some men as a result of leakage from the cut end of the vas deference from the site of production of fertilizing fluids. The lump is painful, sensitive to touch  and is not a common vasectomy side effects.
  • Reversal of the vasectomy is needed in some cases of granuloma.


 inflammation at the site of  vasectomy leads to swelling of the epididymis it is called as Epididymitis. Epididymis is the coiled tube that connects the efferent ducts from  fertilizing fluid producing site to its vas deferens.

Abscesses at the site of incision of vasectomy is the complication and included in vasectomy side effects.

vasectomy side effects may include development of cancer in very rare cases.  men who undergoe vasectomy surgeries need not worry about vasectomy side effects and are very mild and subsides in some days or week. Medications and adequate treatment helps in reducing the complications of vasectomy.

Health care tips and facts about vasectomy

  • Patient should get adequate information about health care after surgery.
  • Exercises should be avoided for some weeks after surgery or vasectomy.
  • cost of vasectomy is different in different hospitals.
  • Many researches have shown that very less side effects with vasectomy.
  • Patient who undergoes surgery can perform normal life as previous.
  • Vasectomy risks are very less and men should not worry about risks of vasectomy.
  • Do meditation to relieve mental risks.
  • no need to have any fear of the surgery complications.