Brain lesions : Brain damage, Causes, treatment

Brain lesions

An abnormal area of brain tissue anatomically or physiologically is called as brain lesion. The MRI scan shows the shadow area or abnormal image, which confirms, the brain lesions. The brain lesions may be formed as a blood clot, cerebral hemorrhage, etc.

MRI scan doesn’t confirms clear diagnosis of brain lesions and careful assessment is needed to diagnose brain lesions. Familial history of brain lesions is one of the risk factor for development of brain lesions. Mechanical or internal brain damage is also considered as brain lesion.

Researchers have confirmed that nearly 5 % of individuals who have brain lesions are prone to have heart holes, i.e. impaired closure of foreman ovale.

Causes of brain lesions

  • Unstable blood pressure also causes white matter brain lesions.
  • Previous head injury,
  • Genetic mutation also causes brain lesions.
  • Accumulation of death nerve cells also causes micro lesions in old age people.
  • Head trauma with incomplete healing,
  • Cerebral Stroke
  • Brain tumors (benign or malignant)
  • Internal cerebral hemorrhage,
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Brain injury
  • Congenital brain anomalies, such as hydrocephalus

Severe migraine headaches  are caused because brain lesions. MRI scan of individuals with migraine headaches shows presence of brain lesions. The early detection and treatment should be given to prevent further complications. Presence of small brain lesions may not cause any trouble to individuals and large lesions should be treated immediately ; otherwise brain function may be altered. Some lesions are formed after strokes and brain function is disturbed as the paralysis occurs.

Symptoms of large brain lesions

  • Sense of smell impaired,
  • Unable to taste properly,
  • Unable to balance the body,
  • Hand tremors,
  • Mental confusion
  • some lesions causes dementia and cerebral stroke… are the some symptoms of brain lesions, which affects different functional centers in the body.
  • Multiple brain lesions are found in some individuals, and these brain lesions causes sever symptoms such as mental confusion, etc.. Some mental disorders are such as organic disorders of brain may be caused by untreated brain lesions. Parenchymal brain lesions causes Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis  in neonates and children.The neonates will have smaller brain lesion and elders children will have large lesions.

People who eat fish high with omega 3 fatty acids more than three times a day are at lower risk of developing silent brain lesions. Brain aging can be slow down by taking certain food stuffs in the diet. Brain damage of different origins should be avoided to prevent mental abnormalities.

Schizophrenia symptoms: delusions, hallucinations and disordered speech

Schizophrenia is the mental disorder, characterized by brain disorder and deviation of behaviour from reality. Hallucinations and delusions are common symptoms of Schizophrenia. Some schizophrenia  symptoms are common in both adults and Childhood schizophrenia.

Symptoms of schizophrenia

  • Hallucinations
  • delusions
  • racing thoughts
  • apathy
  • lack of emotion
  • poor or nonexistent social functioning
  • cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are disorganized thoughts
  • difficulty in  concentrating, in following instructions
  • difficulty completing tasks
  • memory problems.
  • disorganized speech
  • disorganized behavior
  • the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia differ from individual to individual, both in pattern and severity. Not every person with schizophrenia will have all symptoms. The symptoms of schizophrenia may also change with duration of illness.

psychiatrist will make diagnosis with different assessments and procedures and provide a treatment as per need of mental illness. Identifying schizophrenia symptoms is very important to diagnose and treat schizophrenia in adults and children.


A delusion is a firm and strong belief with something and the schizophrenia affected individual believes even wrong as right. delusions are common schizophrenia symptoms seen in 90% of schizophrenia patients.

Delusions of persecution — Belief that others, may present really are an assumption that they are trying to kill him or harm him. schizophrenia patients complaints that others are mixing poison in food, some one is coming with gun, some one robbed their property, others cheated  etc are the symptoms of schizophrenia with delusions.

Delusions of reference — A neutral environmental event becomes a  special and personal meaning to schizophrenic patients. For example an individual with schizophrenia symptoms might believe that a president has send a message to him, a minister has invited him for a dinner, etc.

Delusions of grandeur — schizophrenia symptoms with delusions of grandeur are that the schizophrenia person believes that he has a super power, he can become god , he is a leader and he can do anything, every one has to follow  his order etc .

Delusions of control — Schizophrenia symptoms  with delusions of control are the patient complaints that some one is copying my thoughts, he has stolen my idea, i invented radio but they cheated me and gave their name etc..


Hallucinations are the wrong or false perception in the absence of stimuli. Hallucinations are the main schizophrenia symptoms  involve any of the five senses, auditory hallucinations such as  hearing voices or some  sound with absence of any external sound are most common symptoms of schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are also relatively common.

Schizophrenic  hallucinations may be  meaningful to the Schizophrenic person experiencing them.  The voices are those of someone they know and the words they hear are bad to them and like abusing others.  Hallucinations become more when individual is alone.

Disorganized speech

Fragmented thinking is one of the  schizophrenia symptoms. They have shift of thoughts, change of topic, talking something unrelated, meaning less speaking, murmuring, making unusual sounds are common  schizophrenia symptoms with disorganized speech. Creating new meaning to words, joining unrelated words, Repetition of words and sentences, meaningless use of rhyming words etc..

The negative schizophrenia symptoms

  • Flattened or blunted affect: Lack of emotional expression, including a flat voice, failure to have eye contact, and blank or weak facial expressions.
  • Avolition: Lack of interest or enthusiasm; unable to pursue goal-driven activities.
  • Catatonia: Apparent unawareness about environment, near total absence of motion and speech, unnecessary body movements and different postures, deficit self-care activities such as taking bath etc.
  • Alogia: Difficulties with speech, inability to converse, short and sometimes no replies to questions, interrupted communication

Glomerulonephritis : Causes, Types, Treatment


Inflammation of glomerulus of kidney or nephron is called as Glomerulonephritis. Kidney has the minute units called nephrons . Nephrons are the structural and functional units of kidney.

The glomerulus apparatus is the part of nephron, which filters the blood.


Inflammation of the glomerulus is called as Glomerulonephritis.


  • Chronic glomerulonephritis and
  • Acute glomerulonephritis

Chronic Glomerulonephritis :- is the gradual, progressive inflammation of glomeruli, causes Scarring, sclerosis and ultimately leads to kidney failure.

Acute Glomerulonephritis :- is of sudden onset in nature and healing is fast. Acute glomerulonephritis caused by bacterial infection. Impetigo and other skin diseases may cause Acute glomerulonephritis.

Causes of glomerulonephritis

  • Bacterial infection, such as streptococcus.
  • Underlying diseases,
  • Throat infection,
  • untreated urinary tract infection, etc..

Treatment of Glomerulonephritis

  • Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for glomerulonephritis.
  • Fluid and electrolyte balance, is important.
  • Bed rest, supplement of low protein diet. etc..

Tongue cancer : causes and symptoms

Tongue cancer

Tongue cancer is the cancer type affects mouth and oropharynx.

Tongue has two parts, anterior tongue and base of tongue.

If anterior tongue gets cancer, it is known as oral cancer.

When the posterior base of tongue is affected with cancer is called as oropharyngeal cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the common type of tongue cancer. Squamous cells are the flattened cells forms the mucus lining of mouth, nose, pharynx or throat.

Causes of tongue cancer

The exact causes of tongue cancer is not known.The suspected causes of tongue cancer are

  • Smoking tobacco,
  • chewing tobacco, and
  • excess alcohol consumption.

Symptoms of tongue cancer

These are the main symptoms of tongue cancer.

  • Red or white spot on the skin, for long time.
  • Chronic sore throat,
  • Numbness in tongue or mouth,
  • Bleeding of unknown origin in the tongue,
  • Pain while chewing or swallowing,
  • Sore spot on the tongue which has not healed,
  • Some times pain in ear

Drowsiness : Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Drowsiness is the strong feel to sleep in the day time, the drowsiness compels to actual sleep, at right time or at inappropriate time, when the body feels so. Drowsiness is also called as Hypersomnia or Somnolence.

Drowsiness during day, even with sufficient sleep at night indicates sleeping disorder. Drowsiness due to fatigue is of short term and is experienced rarely. Some psycho-physical symptoms such as depression, Anxiety, Stress, and boredom also leads to Drowsiness.

Drowsiness is not a serious disorder but drowsiness leads to laziness and work output is very less. Proper health maintenance with exercise and healthy food keeps away the Drowsiness.

Causes of Drowsiness

  • Lack of sleep during night, and continuous working without sufficient sleep,
  • Tranquilizers, hypnotics or sleeping pills, and antihistamine medications causes Drowsiness.
  • Short duration sleep or lack of sleep,
  • Infections such as Chronic bronchitis, infectious mononucleosis,
  • Diabetes and other systemic diseases,
  • Stroke,
  • Lack of exercise, laziness, less physical work,
  • Excess alcohol consumption,
  • Medical disorders such as Hypercalcemia, hypothyroidism, hyponatremia, etc.
  • Narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders.

Drowsiness Treatment

Relieving the cause of drowsiness ,

Treat any psycho-physical disorders such as Depression, anxiety, etc to relieve Drowsiness.

If Drowsiness is due to use of some medications, consult the doctor to use any alternative drugs. Don’t stop the medications without doctor’s suggestion.

Obesity induced Drowsiness can be relieved by weight reducing.

Avoid drowsiness inducing foods during day time.

Relieve emotional stress,

Medical disorders such as hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia and hypernatremia should be treated to relieve Drowsiness.

Sufficient sleep during night helps lot relieving Drowsiness.

Treat Narcolepsy, to relieve drowsiness.

Carbon monoxide monitor is used to check the excessive carbon monoxide in the surrounding air of home environment, as excess carbon monoxide induces sleep.

When to contact Doctor

If you feel that Drowsiness is due any above causes, you can seek medical help. Some times infections and disorders with central nervous system also causes drowsiness. to check CNS abnormality CT scan, and MRI are done. Proper history collection from the drowsiness affected person, helps in finding the cause of drowsiness and treating.

Assessment such as:-

  • Sleeping duration,
  • how long you sleep ?
  • Do you Snore while sleeping ?
  • Are you obese ?
  • Taking any medications ?
  • Have any other chronic diseases ?

All these questions helps in Diagnosing and treating Drowsiness, a sleep disorder.

Occupational cancer : causes and prevention of cancer

Occupational cancer

Cancer caused from the occupation, or due to nature of work is called as Occupational cancer. Occupational cancer is a serious problem of the industry. The sites of the body usually affected by occupational exposure are skin, lungs, urinary bladder, and blood forming organs such as spleen etc.

Studies conducted from the different associations on occupational exposure and cancer, provides the approximate data that, 20000 cancer deaths, and 40000 new cancer cases in the United States are due to occupational exposure.

Millions of workers are working in the industries, and being exposed to occupational hazards even after those substances are carcinogenic.

Types of occupational cancer

Skin Cancer

 It is found that cancer of scrotum and the skin in the other part of body was caused by coal tar, X- rays, certain oils and dyes. According to statistics, nearly 75 % of occupational cancers are skin cancer.Skin cancer are an occupational hazard among gas workers, tar distillers, oil refiners, dye, stuff makers, road makers, and in industries associated with the use of mineral oil, pitch, tar,and related compounds.

Lung cancer

It is a occupational hazard in the gas industry, asbestos industry, nickel and chromium work, arsenic roasting plants, and mining of radio active substances causes occupational lung cancer. Lung cancer is also associated with smoking.

Bladder cancer

 It is normally caused in aniline industry and rubber industry. Bladder cancer or occupational bladder cancer is caused due to exposure aromatic amines. Bladder cancer is also caused by exposure to chemicals in dyeing industries, rubber, gas and electric cables industries.


  it is the another name of blood cancer. Exposure to roentgen rays, an radioactive substances causes leukemia.

these are the main occupational cancer or occupational hazards.

Polio : poliomyelitis, causes, signs and symptoms


Polio is also called as poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis. Polio is a viral infectious disease, contagious in nature. The highly infectious virus, polio virus causes polio the historically devastating disease. Polio has been eliminated from western countries during the later period of 20th century.

The word polio is derived from Greek word polio which means grey and myelin which means spinal cord. so the meaning of poliomyelitis is infection of grey matter of spinal cord. usually 90 % of polio affected individuals does not show any symptoms. Affected individuals shows some symptoms after the polio virus enters the blood stream. Only one percent of effectively infected individuals with polio virus shows the flaccid paralysis, after the central nervous system or spinal cord is affected.

Causes of Polio

Member of the genus enterovirus, POLIO virus causes POLIO. Polio virus is a RNA virus inhabited in the human intestine and infects only the human beings.Three serotypes of polio virus are present type 1, type 2, and type 3. All the three serotypes are covered with capsid protein and all are extremely virulent. Type 1 polio virus is most commonly infecting the human beings and leads to paralysis. Till the vaccination for polio was invented in 1955, the polio affected millions of children world wide.

Polio can infect human beings at any age but, children are most infected as the immunity is not completely developed.

Effective vaccination against polio was invented in 1955 and due to vaccination, polio was eliminated from USA in the year 1979 and from the western hemisphere in 1991.

Signs and symptoms of polio

Nearly 90 % individuals infected with polio virus shows no symptoms and polio infection becomes Asymptomatic. Only 4 to 8 % of infected with polio virus shows the following symptoms.

Abortive polio : is the mild form of polio infection, and the individuals nervous system is not affected. Polio infected individuals shows mild symptoms such as flu like fever, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, sore throat , etc..

Non paralytic Polio : is a serious form of polio infection, leads to aseptic meningitis. The symptoms such as sensitivity to light, heaviness of head are common with this type of polio infection.

Paralytic polio : is a severe debilitating form of polio, leads to paralysis. Only 0.1 to 1.8 % of human are affected with this type polio infection and severe mobility problems and neurological problems are observed.

People with abortive polio and/or non-paralytic polio recovers fast from polio infection. In case of paralytic polio, the polio virus enters blood stream from intestinal tract, and infects nervous system. When the nervous system is affected muscles becomes paralysed and even the severe polio virus infection may lead to Death.

Gout disease: causes, diet, attack, treatment and Prevention

The form of arthritis with inflammation of joints is known as Gout. Even a small touch can cause severe pain  . Gout pain is a pain of high intensity and highly difficult to bear pain in gout arthritis. Big toe is the mainly affected joint with Gout. Ankle joint, wrist joint, knee joint, fingers and elbow are also affected with Gout.

Gout causes, what causes Gout ?

  • Increased uric acid level in the body,
  • Overproduction uric acid by the body
  • Reduced uric acid excretion from the kidneys,
  • Inherited genes form parents to children cause  gout.
  • Eating foods rich in purines, such as meat etc causes gout.

Mono sodium urate crystals formed from excess uric acid accumulation in joints and connective tissue leads to sever joint inflammation and severe gout pain.

Gout diet

  • Orange juice and water is recommended for first week of gout attack. Fasting with orange juice is recommended to treat gout naturally with gout diet.
  • Gout diets include fruits such as grapes, apples, pears, peaches, oranges and pineapples.
  • Vegetables in gout diet include beets, celery, watercress, turnips, squash, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage and potatoes etc.
  • foods low in purine and doesn’t stimulate excess uric acid production.
  • wheat tortilla made wholly of  wheat flour, cottage cheese and buttermilk.

Patient should avoid purine and uric acid producing foods in diet such as meats, eggs and fish.

Gout patients should also avoid tea, coffee, sugar, white flour and their products.

Gout attack

Gout attack is the sudden intense single joint inflammation with severe gout pain. Redness and swelling are present at the inflammation site of gouty arthritis. Gout attack may last from four to six days. Subsequent attacks are rare and gout attacks do not last for weeks, months or years. Gout attack disappears after a week even with no treatment. Severe recurrent gout attack causes injury to joints.

Acute gout attack : Acute gout attack may last for a week. Gout medicines such as Colchicine Corticosteroids NSAIDS relives acute Gout pain.

Gout treatments

  • Gout medicine : are highly beneficiary in gout treatment. Food modification also prevents further gout attacks. Medicine used to treat Gout are
  • Acetaminophen : An analgesic to reduce joint pain.
  • NSAIDS : Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and reduces gout pain.
  • Colchicine : Reduces inflammation and attacks are reduced.
  • Corticosteroids : Reduces inflammation at the joint by suppressing immune system.
  • Probenecid : Excretes excess uric acid through urine and decreases uric acid levels in blood. Probenecid is good gout medicine.
  • Colbenemid : the drug is the combination of Probenecid, Colchicine and uricosuric agent, prevents constipation.
  • Allopurinol : is the gout medicine, lowers blood uric acid level by inhibiting uric acid synthesis in body. Allopurinol is best gout medicine as it blocks the conversion of purine present in foods into uric acid.
  • Even though gout cure is not completely possible, temporary gout cure is achieved with gout medicines. Gout treatment relieves pain, and reduces further inflammation of joints.

Gout prevention

Got prevention is the best method of relieving pain related to arthritis. Weight reduction helps in prevention of Gout by reducing weight on the Joint. Drink enough water to excrete excess uric acid from the body and it helps lot in gout prevention. Reduce hyperuricemia with medications and decreased uric acid level prevents gout arthritis. Dietary changes include consuming diets with less purines, as Purine rich diet causes gout. avoid purine rich foods.