Postpartum hemorrhage: symptoms, causes, risk factors & treatment

PPH is abbreviated as postpartum hemorrhage. The bleeding occurring in the birth canal of mother within ten days after delivery, even with normal delivery or cesarean section is called as postpartum hemorrhage. If not treated Postpartum hemorrhage is a life threatening complication, leads to shock and even death of mother if proper medical care is not given. The blood loss in Postpartum hemorrhage is greater than 500 ml in normal delivery and more than 1,000 ml in cesarean section delivery.

Postpartum Hemorrhage Facts

  • Usually 1 to 10 % of pregnant mothers experience postpartum hemorrhage after delivery, according to american statistics.
  • Haemorrhage can occur before placental delivery or after placental delivery.
  • Postpartum hemorrhage leads to severe maternal morbidity and mortality.
  • 17% maternal mortality is due to Postpartum hemorrhage.
  • If bleeding is continuous, surgical intervention is needed to treat postpartum hemorrhage.
  •   Asian women have high incidence of postpartum hemorrhage.
  •   Postpartum hemorrhage occurs in women of child bearing age.


Postpartum Hemorrhage Causes

Uterine atony

 It is the main cause of postpartum hemorrhage. Uterine corpus is improperly constricted in case of uterine atony. Risk factors of uterine atony are

1) Overdistended uterus : Due to  multiple gestation, fetal macrosomia, hydramnios etc.
2) Fatigued uterus : Because of augmented or prolonged labor, amnionitis.
3) Obstructed uterus : caused due to  retained placenta or fetal parts, placenta accreta.

Uterus trauma

injury to uterus continuity, trauma of cervix, or birth canal, etc causes postpartum hemorrhage. Uterus trauma causes are:-

1) Delivery of a large infant ( baby with large head)
2) Instrumental delivery or intrauterine manipulation (using of  forceps, vacuum extraction of baby using ventous)
3) normal birth after cesarean section (VBAC)
4) Episiotomy

  • Blood coagulation disorders such as thrombocytopenia, may present before pregnancy or occur during labor
  • Uterine inversion, uterine rupture also causes  postpartum hemorrhage.
  • Drugs used to induce labor,
  • Prolonged labour,
  • Infection of birth canal at the time of labor,
  • Obesity of pregnant mother, etc are the causes postpartum hemorrhage.

Postpartum hemorrhage risk factors

  • Preeclampsia
  • Previous history of postpartum hemorrhage,
  • Asian or Hispanic ethnicity
  • Nulliparity or multiparity of pregnant mother.

Symptoms of Postpartum haemorrhage

  • Uncontrolled bleeding from birth canal,
  • Decrease in  blood pressure,
  • Increased heart beat rate,
  • Decreased  red blood cell count,
  • Swelling and pain in tissues of perineal area and birth canal,

Treatment of postpartum hemorrhage

Treatment of postpartum hemorrhage is given after the careful assessment by the physician or Obstetrician.

  • Nature of  pregnancy, health status of mother and medical history of pregnant mother,
  • Duration and extent of Hemorrhage,
  • Medications taken by the mother, procedures such as instrumental delivery, or any secific therapies.

The aim of treating  postpartum hemorrhage is to stop bleeding or hemorrhage as early as possible. Treatment for postpartum hemorrhage are

  • Examine uterus for any injury or to find uterus atony.
  • Medications to induce  uterine contraction.
  • Massage of Uterus manually, as it stimulates uterine contractions.
  • Pack the uterus with sterile sponges stop Hemorrhage.
  • Remove the part of placenta attached to uterus in case of incomplete placental delivery.
  • Ligation of bleeding blood vessels,

Laporatomy : Abdomen is opened and visualized for any uterus damage to find out the cause of postpartum hemorrhage.

Hysterectomy : is the term used for removal of uterus when all the remedial measures fail to stop postpartum hemorrhage.

Blood transfusion to restore the blood lost during hemorrhage.

Administer I V fluids, nearly 2000 to 2500 ml in the first day after delivery.

Treat Shock with administration of electrolytes and fluids.

Administer oxygen to mother  if  needed.

All the measures should be taken to restore the health of mother and to save the life of the mother.

Knee Arthritis : causes , symptoms , treatment

Knee Arthritis

Knee Arthritis is the form of Osteoarthritis. Knee Arthritis is also called as degenerative disease or Wear and tear arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes the degeneration of articular cartilage of knee joint.
The lack of articular cartilage leads to bare bone, will crush each other during mobility and causes pain in the Knee joint.

Causes of Knee Arthritis

  • Genetic predisposition causes knee arthritis in number of individuals.
  • People aged above 50 are at risk Knee arthritis, as the aging process causes knee arthritis.
  • Over weight persons or obese will get knee arthritis, because the knee joints need to bear excess weight, and the articular cartilage tears.
  • Meniscus tear in the knee joint causes knee arthritis.
  • Fracture or Trauma to knee joint also causes knee arthritis.

Symptoms of knee arthritis

  • Stiffness of knee joint,
  • Pain associated with mobility,
  • Difficult knee movement,
  • Increased pain while standing after prolonged sitting.
  • Swelling of knee joint,
  • Tenderness of knee joint,
  • Sensation of knee joint may give out, are main symptoms of knee arthritis.

Treatment of knee arthritis

  •   Physiotherapy is the best treatment of knee arthritis.
  •   Exercises, especially aquatic exercises are beneficial.
  •   Reduction of weight is recommended for over weight persons.
  •   Walking aids are used to minimize the weight on knee joint.
  •   STEROIDS are given to reduce inflammation.
  •   Knee Osteotomy ,
  • Knee replacement surgery..these are the treatment for knee arthritis.

Back pain: relief exercises and tips

Back pain is the pain originated from the muscles, bones, and spine of back region.

Treatment of back pain – tips to back pain relive

  • try to engage in activities as soon as possible after back pain starts to relieve.
  • don’t over stretch back muscles by doing work with difficulty.
  • place the pillow between knees while lying to lateral side to get comfort from back pain.
  • If you lie flat on surface, use pillow under knees to relieve back pain.
  • exercises to strengthen back muscles are helpful in relieving chronic back pain.
  • Ibuprofen, acetaminophen and other analgesics help to relieve back pain.
  • hot or cold compressions on affected area may relieve back pain.
  • even though bed rest is the best treatment to relive back pain, prolonged bed rest leads to depression.
  • change the posture, i.e use proper posture while working to avoid back pain.
  • do regular exercise as per physician’s advice to get relief from back pain.

High blood pressure pregnancy causes, symptoms and treatment

Hypertension pregnancy or pregnancy induced hypertension is the hypertension or increased arterial pressure developed during pregnancy. The changed hormonal levels in the body and physiological changes causes hypertension during pregnancy. The hypertension pregnancy or high blood pressure pregnancy develops after the gestational age of 20 weeks.

Symptoms of hypertension in pregnancy

Swelling over ankles, hands and puffiness of face are main symptoms of high blood pressure in pregnant mother. Mother may complaint headache as soon as she wake up from the bed. Dizziness is also present with some discomfort.

Causes of hypertension in pregnancy

Persistent elevated hypertension with systolic blood pressure of more than 160 mm of Hg and diastolic blood pressure of more than 110 mm of Hg in pregnant mother is called as pregnancy hypertension or pregnancy induced hypertension.

Hypertension in pregnancy occurs only in some women but not in all pregnant mothers. Mother develops high blood pressure because of increased blood volume during pregnancy. High blood pressure pregnancy is developed into pre eclampsia.

The untreated high blood pressure pregnancy becomes complicated with HELLP syndrome and Eclampsia. Eclampsia is the high blood pressure pregnancy with convulsions. Pre eclampsia and eclampsia affects the health of both mother and growing fetus. only 2 to 3 % of pregnancies becomes complicated with eclampsia.

Treatment of hypertension pregnancy

  • Immediate control of hypertension pregnancy is needed to protect the fetus and to promote  intrauterine fetal growth and development. Untreated high blood pressure pregnancy may become fatal and Labor or child birth becomes very difficult. Hypertension pregnancy is the cause of higher maternal, prenatal mortality and morbidity rate in India.
  • Close monitoring of mother with high blood pressure pregnancy is needed to prevent complication for both pregnant mother and baby. No specific treatment is needed if hypertension stays in mild elevated level.
  • Hospitalization is needed for health care and to avoid emergency at the time of child birth or labor.
  • Now a days stem cell therapy is used to treat pregnancy hypertension.
  • Anti hypertensives and anti convulsant are required to treat Eclampsia.

Alfa Thalassemia : causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a autosomal recessive blood disease, is an inherited genetic disorder. Thalassemia is a group of genetic disorders of blood, characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Due to abnormal hemoglobin, the number of hemoglobin decreases in the blood and destruction of RBC takes place due to genetic inheritance. Thalassemia is also called as Mediterranean anaemia.


Description of Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which quantitative abnormal hemoglobin, i.e. very less number of globin in hemoglobin. Genes which produce the protein present in hemoglobin called GLOBINS are altered in case of Thalassemia. Hemoglobin is produced from two  sets of genes present on different chromosomes and produces two different pairs of protein.  One set of protein is alpha and another is Beta.

Every hemoglobin molecule has both alpha and beta protein. Connection of two alpha proteins to two beta proteins in the hemoglobin enhances binding and releasing of oxygen. Alpha protein is controlled by chromosome number 16 and beta protein is controlled by chromosome number 11. In thalassemia, when any one of these genes fails to produce any one of the protein, leads to Thalassemia. In alpha Thalassemia, one or more genes are missed and in case of beta thalassemia, genes are present but fails to produce normal hemoglobin.


Types of Thalassemia

Alpha thalassemia : Usually found southeast Asia . In this type of thalassemia, alpha protein synthesis is blocked due to genetic abnormality, resulting in abnormal hemoglobin production. Chinese, people form Asia and black people are usually affected form Alpha Thalassemia. Untreated, severe form of alpha thalassemia leads to still birth.

Beta thalassemia : Commonly found in mediterranean region and instead of beta protein is present, it becomes unable to produce beta protein, and causes beta thalassemia.


Causes of Thalassemia

  • Genetic inheritance,
  • Gene mutation,
  • Children may show the anaemia after age of two, due to inherited genes from parents,
  • Alteration in the hemoglobin chain,
  • Family history of thalassemia, etc.


Symptoms of Thalassemia

  • Fatigue,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Icterus or Jaundice,
  • Facial bone deformity.


Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia

On physical examination confirms Enlarged spleen,

Peripheral blood smear test shoes abnormal, small red blood cells,

Anaemia is confirmed from complete blood count.

Abnormal hemoglobin are found on Hemoglobin electrophoresis


Treatment of Thalassemia

Regular blood transfusion are necessary to treat severe Thalassemia. Folate supplements are also provided. Iron supplements and oxidative drugs are avoided in patients who receive blood transfusion.

Chelation Therapy : Is needed to remove iron form the body, from the patient who received regular blood transfusion.

Bone marrow transplantation is also used as a super speciality treatment of Thalassemia.

Fibula fracture : Causes , Symptoms, Treatment of Fibula fracture

Fibula fracture

Complete or partial breakage in the continuity of fibula is called as fibula fracture. Fibula is the bone below the knee along with tibia. Fibula displacement and fibula fracture are the common injuries to the fibula bone. Severe ankle sprains causes  fibula fracture. The fibula fracture may occur at any part of the fibula bone. Nearly 15 % of  body weight is borne by fibula and the fracture is not severe as other weight bearing fractures.

Causes of Fibula fracture

  • Football players are prone to have  fibula fracture,
  • Falls in children, players, and old ages also causes fibula fracture.
  • Most of fibula fractures are not identified easily and some individuals live with fibula fracture with mild pain for long time.
  • Some individuals feel pain at fibula even after some months of fibula fracture.
  • Patients with fibula fracture can walk with minor discomfort as the fibula bone bears less body weight.
  • Orthopedic surgeon should assess the fibula fracture carefully to know the severity of fibula fracture.
  • Hairline crack in the fibula or small fracture in fibula is caused because of stress and is called as stress fibula fracture.
  • Muscles traction and twisting forces placed on the fibula bone from the surrounding muscles  causes stress fibula fracture.
  • Fibula fracture may be associated with tibia fracture or ankle fracture.


Signs and symptoms of Fibula fracture

  •   pain in the injured lower leg
  • Tenderness and swelling in the area below knee, near calf muscle,
  • Bleeding and bruising at fractured site,
  • Difficulty  to bear weight on  injured leg,
  • Visible bone fragments  are seen along with damage to skin in case of complete  fracture,
  • Numbness of lower leg,
  • Coldness of the affected leg and distal end  of  fracture site, as the blood supply is altered.

Treatment of Fibula fracture

Treatment is given on the nature of fracture, and severity of fibula fracture. Elevation of fractured  leg is the Initial treatment  for fibula fracture, and ice packs are applied to  relieve pain and reduce swelling of injured area. Reduce further dislocation of injured bone. Immobilization of affected victim is important.

If the bone is broken, plaster cast is applied to enhance healing of fibula fracture, the duration of cast application is up to 8 weeks. When the fibula fracture is compound, surgery is done to correct the deformity and a rod, plate, or screws are fixed at fibula fracture site as per need. Walking with crutches is suggested during recovery period. A plastic stirrup-type brace, cast, or walking boot is often recommended to treat fibula fracture.

Exercises should be done after the fibula fracture is healed. Exercises such as stretching and strengthening of injured  leg, etc are done and exercises should enhance blood supply to the area. Physiotherapy is very helpful in restoring leg function after treating fibula fracture.

RICE principle is used to reduce swelling, pain and inflammation, in case of acute fractures.

  •   Rest- Adequate rest is needed to correct the deformity, and walk should be assisted with crutches to lessen the weight on injured leg.
  •   Ice-  ice pack is applied  every two to three hours of 15 to 20 minutes during the first 72 hours of fibula fracture.
  • Compression- Use an ace wrap on the leg. Start at the bottom of the toes and wrap up past the knee.
  • Elevation-  ankle of fibula injured leg should be elevated above the level of victims heart while sitting or lying down, to enhance venous return to heart from extremity.

Hemoglobin count : low and high hemoglobin count

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is the specialized protein rich in iron, present in the red blood cells, and  helps in transporting respiratory gases. The presence of Hemoglobin gives red colour to blood. The normal hemoglobin level in body is 14 to 17 gm/dl in males and  10.8 to 16 gm /dl in females.  The hemoglobin count for newborns is higher than elder ones i.e. 17-24 gm/dl.


Hemoglobin count

Now a days hemoglobin count is done using machines, which are used for blood test. In the machine red blood cells are broken down and hemoglobin is exposed. With chemical mechanisms the hemoglobin count is done.

Hemoglobin is made up of four globular protein subunits are attached by protein bond. Proteins in the hemoglobin attracts oxygen from alveoli of lungs. Combining with oxygenated blood oxyhemoglobin is formed and it  travels  entire bloodstream. The oxygen is carried to distant parts of body and delivered at tissue level. At tissue level, hemoglobin absorbs the carbon dioxide and forms carboxyhemoglobin is carried to lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide.


Low hemoglobin count

The reduced hemoglobin level than normal range is called as low hemoglobin, and low hemoglobin count  indicates a low red blood cell count is called as Anemia. The low hemoglobin level indicates nutritional deficiency. Weakness and fatigue are the main symptoms of low hemoglobin level. Individuals with other systemic diseases have risk of low hemoglobin count. Immediate medical care is needed to prevent tissue hypoxia and other  complications.

The causes of low hemoglobin count or anemia

  • Loss of blood  during traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer etc.
  • Nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B12, folate deficiency),
  • Bone marrow diseases
  • Abnormal hemoglobin such sickle cell anemia.
  • Iron and folic acid deficiencies,
  • Vitamin  deficiencies
  • Erythropoietin deficiency
  • Red blood cells destruction with blood transfusion
  • Severe blood loss
  • Hypothyroidism, and deficiency  of testosterone  hormone
  • kidney failure, cancer,  Crohn’s disease and other Chronic diseases,
  • Autoimmune diseases,
  • lead poisoning
  • malnutrition
  • chemotherapy and
  • use of certain medications,


High hemoglobin count

Hemoglobin count is said to be high when hemoglobin count  is above-average level in blood. Increased hemoglobin count more than 18 grams per deciliter  of blood for men and 16 g/dl for women is called high hemoglobin count. The number of red blood cells may be normal but the hemoglobin count may be raised in some cases.

Hemoglobin  is the vital component of red blood cells. Hemoglobin has oxygen-carrying capacity, transports oxygenated blood from lungs to tissues and deoxygenated blood from tissues to lungs.  If the Hemoglobin count decreases, blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity also decreases. The tissues receives less oxygen and severe reduction of Hemoglobin count leads to tissue hypoxia.


High hemoglobin count indications

  • Congenital heart diseases
  • Cor pulmonale
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Increased RBC formation etc..

Arthritis treatments : Arthritis exercises , arthritis diet

Arthritis treatment

Arthritis treatment is very important to relieve pain of millions of arthritis patients worldwide. The treatments for  arthritis diseases includes rest,  relaxation, exercise, arthritis relieving diet, medication, health education etc.  The proper body mechanics also helps in avoiding joint stress and are the best arthritis treatments.  Medications are used to relieve pain because of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments is

  • To Relieve joint pain
  • Minimize risks of arthritis treatment
  • To avoid further development of arthritis,
  • Guidance to patients about arthritis management,
  • To Prevent work disability.

Surgery is done in severe cases of arthritis.  The treatments for arthritis is as per need of arthritis patient and doctor  treatment plan, which includes number of therapies as arthritis treatments.  Emu oil is used for relieving arthritis pain.  Colchicine  and allopurinol  are the drugs commonly used for arthritis treatments.

Fatigue is the most common problem of arthritis patients. Patients with  rheumatic arthritis disease should maintain a  balance between rest and activity. When an arthritis  Patient experiences pain or fatigue during exercises  should  take a break or rest. Prolonged rest also leads to muscle stiffness and it leads to failure of arthritis treatments.

Arthritis Exercises

The regular physical exercise  reduces  joint pain and stiffness,  increase flexibility, muscle strength, and helps in easy movement of joints. Regular walk also helps in weight reduction and this is the best treatments for arthritis.  Don’t start exercise program blindly, and should get perfect education from the doctor. Exercises recommend for arthritis treatments includes:-

Range-of-motion exercises: (e.g. stretching joints)  To help maintain normal joint movement, maintains normal joint flexibility, and relieves muscle stiffness.

Strengthening exercises: To maintain or increase muscle strength. Strong muscles  supports and protect joints affected with arthritis. Weight lifting exercises are the good exercises for arthritis treatments.

Aerobic  exercises: To improve cardiovascular fitness, helps to control weight on joints, and to improve overall well-being of joint function. Studies also proved that aerobic exercise are best treatments for arthritis and reduces inflammation of  joints along with improvement in movement. Walking, bicycle riding are treatments for arthritis under aerobic exercises.

Arthritis diet

Well-balanced diet  is the main part arthritis treatments. Regular exercises and  a well-balanced diet helps arthritis patients to maintain their body weight and to have healthy joints. Weight reduction helps  in avoiding joint stress and reduces joint tear, hence risk of joint pain and swelling are reduced. Obese arthritis patients should reduce their body weight, along with other treatments for arthritis. These are the treatments for arthritis.

Pertussis : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Pertussis

Pertussis is also called as whooping cough. Pertussis is an  important communicable disease caused by bacteria,  results in uncontrollable, violent cough. Especially children are affected with pertussis.  As the sound comes during cough and taking air in, is called as whooping cough.  Nearly 5000 to 10000 children in united states are dieing every year because of pertussis.


Causes of pertussis

Bordetella pertussis, the bacteria causes pertussis infection. Pertussis is the disease of upper respiratory tract, if not treated causes permanent disability in children and may lead to death. Pertussis transmitted when an infected person sneezes or coughs, the bacteria spreads to air, and the person who inhales pertussis infected air droplets becomes infected with pertussis. Hence pertussis is an infectious disease easily spreads from person to person. Cough, sneezing, runny nose are the early symptoms of pertussis. After the pertussis bacteria multiplies in body, severe cough starts. Children experience weakness, fatigue and discomfort as the cough becomes severe. The continuous cough leads to impaired breathing and the children make whoop sound after coughing, is called whooping cough. Whooping sound is absent in infants less than 8 months. Some children vomits along with small amount of sputum. Coughing and vomiting simultaneously may lead to chocking in infants. Pertussis infection usually lasts for a period of 6 weeks. Whooping cough affects not only children but elder people can also get infected with pertussis. Now the incidence of pertussis is reduced as children are immunized during infancy, and higher rate pertussis is seen in  adolescents and elders.

Symptoms of pertussis

  • Runny nose, sneezing
  • mild fever up to 102 °F.
  • Severe, continuous cough
  • difficulty in  breathing
  • both night and day cough,
  • vomiting with sputum and cough,
  • dry cough develops after some days,
  • presence of whooping sound after cough while taking breath,
  • generalized weakness and fatigue,
  • Some children will have diarrhoea,
  • Choking may occur in infants.


Diagnosis of pertussis

The initial diagnosis is the physical examination and history collection. The symptoms of pertussis are similar to pneumonia and the careful examination is needed to diagnose pertussis.

  • Sputum test for bacterial culture,
  • Nasal secretions test in laboratory,
  • Chest x ray is also taken to differentiate from pertussis.
  • Blood test is done to check elevated white blood cells.


Treatment of Pertussis

Antibiotics such as erythromycin and amoxicillin are the choice of drugs for pertussis treatment. Analgesics and antipyretics  are given to reduce fever and body ache. Incentive care should be taken to treat the infants infected with pertussis, and careful monitoring of progress of diseases and prognosis of treatment is needed. Hospitalization is needed in severe pertussis infected children. An oxygen tent with high humidity is used for infants have breathing difficulty. Intravenous fluids administration is also done to maintain water and electrolyte balance. Sedatives  may be given by the pediatrician for young children to avoid crying and induce sleep. Expectorants, and cough suppressants are  not helpful in treating pertussis.

Prevention of pertussis

The DPT vaccine ( diphtheria, pertussis,tetanus) or only pertussis vaccine Helps lot in preventing pertussis. Immunization schedule n most of countries  recommended for DPT-vaccine in infancy itself. The booster shot of pertussis is given after some months in infants. In adults also booster dose of pertussis is given to prevent pertussis in adolescents and adults. Pertussis affected children should follow the measures to prevent spread of pertussis infection by wearing face mask, or avoiding school for some days. The vaccination also given to elders aged above 65 years to prevent pertussis.

Low white blood cell count : causes, symptoms, treatment, precautions

Low white blood cell count

The decrease in the number of white blood cells than normal level is called as low white blood cell count. Leukopenia is the medical term used for low white blood cell count. White blood cells as the components of blood circulates throughout the body and fights against infection, while provides immunity to the body. Children are the more sufferers from this disorder than elder ones.

The white blood cells plays a major role in providing resistance to body. The main component of immune system of human body is white blood cells. When the white blood cells the resistance power of body is reduced and the individual can’t fight against infection. The individual is prone to have recurrent infections which stays for long time. AIDS patients have low white blood cell count and reduced lymphocytes and that is why they will have severe infections.

The inflammatory symptoms such as redness, swelling, pus formation, cough, fever etc develops very poor or may these inflammatory reactions are absent in patients with low white blood cell count as there is no enough white blood cell count to fight against foreign bodies. So seek medical medical help for even small discomfort or infection.

Neutropenia is the term used to indicate decreased number of neutrophils, the component of white blood cell, which leads to low white blood cell count.

The normal range of white blood cell count  in body is 7000 to 11000 cells per cubic mm of blood. The low white blood cell count  less than 5000 cells per Cm can be said as low white blood cell count. The low white blood cell count may vary from medical institutions to institutions. A low white blood cell count in children is not similar to elders and different according to age group. Leukopenia is  also called as low white blood count.

The white blood cells have different component cells which also determines the low white blood cell count. Decrease in any one of component cell also leads to low white blood cell count. The laboratory test determines the number of cells in the given blood sample.

Normal white blood count in adults

  • Total white blood count – 4000 to 11ooo / UL
  • Lymphocytes  – 22 to 44 %
  • Monocytes  – 0 to 8 %
  • Neutrophils  – 40 to 70 %
  • Eosinophils  – 0 to 4 %
  • Basophils  – 0 to 1 %

Causes of low white blood cell count

  • Altered bone marrow function  because of Viral infections,
  • Congenital disorders which diminishes bone marrow function
  • Metastatic cancer and other illness that damages bone marrow
  • Autoimmune disorders which destroys bone marrow cells
  • suppressed immunity due to recurrent infections
  • Some medications also causes low white blood cell count by inhibiting  white blood cells or damaging bone marrow


Specific causes of low white blood cell count

  • Severe allergic reactions
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Chemotherapy for treatment of cancer,
  • Steroids such as prednisone,
  • Use of medications such as  antibiotics, diuretics
  • Immune deficiency disorder
  • HIV infection
  • Destruction of blood cells by spleen
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Infectious diseases
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Kostmann syndrome, a congenital disorder with low neutrophil production
  • Myelokathexis, a congenital in which  neutrophils fails to enter blood stream form production site.
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Parasitic diseases
  • Radiation therapy
  • Vitamin deficiency disorders


Facts about low white blood cell count

The low white blood cell count is  found when the laboratory test is suggested by your doctor and test results gives the exact level of low white blood count level in blood or individuals body. The laboratory results gives clear picture about the percentage of low white blood count and this helps the physician to treat the condition and to take any measures needed. Low white blood count is the clear indicator of decreased immune level in the body and the individual is prone to have recurrent infections. Further diagnostic tests such as x – ray, ultrasound scan, bone marrow aspiration, biopsy  are done to assess the condition of spleen and bone marrow. The low white blood count commonly occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy given to cancer patients.


Precautions to prevent infection

The patients with low white blood count should follow the precautionary measures to prevent infection by wearing face masks, avoiding contact with infected person, beware of contagious or communicable diseases, etc. Use face mask to avoid transmission of infection through nose and upper respiratory tract.  practice hygienic measures to prevent infection and protect health.


When to contact  a doctor  about low white blood count ?

  • An elevated  temperature greater than 100.4°F.  you can check temperature with  the help of thermometer.
  • Sudden and recurrent Chills (rigors) or body shakes,
  • Sudden onset of  pain with unknown cause,

When you experience all these symptoms with known low white blood count, contact doctor immediately.

If you experience symptoms such as

  • Sore throat
  • mouth Sores
  • A white patches in  mouth,
  • tongue lesions
  • Signs of a urinary bladder infection  such as
  • painful urination or burning sensation,
  • red blood cells in urine
  • frequent urination than normal

along with decreased or low white blood count, is better to seek medical help as soon as possible to prevent any complications.


Treatment of low white blood count

Low white blood count is treated by relieving from the actual causes. The careful diagnosis helps in assessment of disease condition and treatment is given as per requirement. The medial research  indicates that some foods and food components helps controlling low white blood cell count.

The doctor will prescribe the medications such as

  • Filgrastim
  • Pegfilgrastim
  • Sargramostim

after each cycle of chemotherapy in order to prevent low white blood cell count  for prolonged time. The prophylactic  antimicrobial medications such as Sulfamethoxazole – trimethoprim,   Fluconazole,  Itraconazole   are prescribed to prevent specific infections which occurs with weaken immune system or low white blood count (associated with chemotherapy).

Some  specific foods such as  garlic, foods high in zinc such as oysters, pot roast, dark meat turkey and pumpkin and squash seeds are helpful in boosting immune system of the body and these foods intake reduces the risks of low white blood count. Fruits and vegetables are good for health and stimulates production of antibodies and gives resistance to body. Multivitamin intake is very beneficial with this disord