Meningococcal meningitis : causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Meningococcal meningitis

Meningococcal meningitis is the inflammation of meninges, the  layer which covers the brain and spinal cord  superficially. Septicemia and meningococcal meningitis are the two major diseases caused by meningococcal bacteria and is the main form of bacterial meningitis. Wide spread blood infection is also a meningococcal disease.

Causes of Meningococcal meningitis

Different types of bacterias causes meningitis but Neisseria meningitidis is the main bacteria causes Meningococcal meningitis.

Respiratory droplets and contaminated air particles with infected persons transmits the infection. Activities such as sneezing and coughing spreads bacteria to air. When the normal person inhales the infected air particles causes Meningococcal meningitis.

Lumbar puncture and collection of Cerebrospinal fluid is the main diagnostic procedure. The collected sample of Cerebrospinal fluid is sent to laboratory for bacterial culture. Bacterial sensitivity test is done and specific bacteria which causes meningitis is identified. In case of Meningococcal meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis is found in CSF  culture.

Symptoms of Meningococcal meningitis

  • Stiff neck,
  • Sensitivity to bright light,
  • High fever,
  • Confusion,
  • Headache, increases with bending,
  • Tiredness,
  • Vomiting etc.

Cerebrospinal fluid is mainly infected with Meningococcal bacteria. Meningococcal meningitis is the result of consequence of bacteria entering meningeal layer and Cerebrospinal fluid.

Prevention of Meningococcal meningitis

Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis is the main form of preventing Meningococcal meningitis. Different vaccines are used in different countries. At present vaccines available against Meningococcal meningitis are grouped as five groups, such as A, B, C, Y, AND W135. These are the main strains of meningococcal bacterias, causes meningitis in man. Menactra and Menomune are two commonly used vaccines.

Health maintenance and hygienic measures are helpful in preventing Meningococcal meningitis. The practices such as hand washing and avoiding sharing of food and water contaminated with human saliva prevents spreading of Meningococcal meningitis disease.

Treatment of Meningococcal meningitis

Avoid close contacts with infected persons and taking effective antibiotics helps in preventing the spread of infection.

Penicillin and ampicillin are the main antibiotics used to treat Meningococcal meningitis. Untreated meningitis is fatal and Immediate medical care is needed for recover from disease.

Whooping cough : causes, symptoms, prevention

Whooping cough

Whooping cough symptoms Causes of Whooping cough – Whooping cough is commonly known as pertussis. Whooping cough is the correct medical spelling. pertussis is a  infection  respiratory  tract of infants less than 2 years old. This disease gets its name because patients with the disease make a “whooping” sound when they take a breath. Whooping cough is a contagious disease. Inhaling contaminated droplets leads to pertussis. The chemical is produced in the respiratory tract and it leads to inflammation.

Causes of whooping cough

The cause is a bacterium called, Bordetella Pertussis.  The bacterium is spread between people by respiratory droplets, which are produced when infected people cough or sneeze.  It can also be spread via contact with infected body fluids such as nasal secretions. Bacterias multiply in the airway and produces thick mucus.

Symptoms of whooping cough

Symptoms usually develop 7-17 days after the initial infection by the bacteria.

Most patients who develop symptoms are under the age of 2.

  • Runny nose,
  • Nasal congestion,
  • sneezing,
  • dry cough,
  • mild fever,
  • dry cough, are the common symptoms of pertussis or whooping cough.

# Symptoms usually last about 6 weeks, and are divided into 3 stages:

Stage 1 : symptoms include sneezing, runny eyes, runny nose, loss of appetite, loss of energy, and nighttime coughing.
Stage 2 : symptoms include a series of rapid coughs followed by the “whoop” noise when the person tries to take in a breath.
Stage 3 : is the recovery phase in which the coughing is not as frequent or as severe. This stage usually begins after about the 4th week.

  • hooping Cough is suspected in young patients with a cough lasting more than 2 weeks.

Prevention of whooping cough

  • Immunization with the pertussis vaccine is recommended for all infants. This vaccine is usually administered as a DTP (diphtheria, Tetanus, and pertussis) combined vaccine
  • Neither previous infection nor vaccination gives life-long immunity. However, booster doses of the vaccine are not recommended after the age of 6, unless there is an outbreak of the infection.

Asthma attack : causes and Asthama triggers

Asthma attack

Asthma is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, constricts airway associated with respiratory inflammation and excess mucus production. Most of asthma trigger factors causes asthma attack.

when Asthma symptoms becomes worst is called as Asthma attack.

Asthma patient is sensitive to some objects, and those increases bronchial constriction and causes an asthma attack are called asthma triggers:-

  • When asthma patient is exposed to triggers, the inflammation occurs in the airway and leads to swelling of bronchial mucosa and excess mucus production.
  • Airway becomes narrowed due to mucus accumulation.
  • The narrowing of bronchi obstructs air to go out from lungs.
  • Excess stress is applied to exhale the air, it makes breathing difficulty.
  • With proper treatment, severity of asthma attack can be reduced.

Asthma triggers

  • An allergen,
  • Tobacco smoke,
  • Expose to cold or warm air,
  • Pet dander,
  • Perfume use,
  • Breathing moist air,
  • Exercise or exertion,
  • Emotional stress, etc
  • In children the common asthma trigger is common cold caused by viral infection.

Facts related to asthma

  • Asthma can’t be cured, but it can be controlled with effective treatment and preventive measures.
  • Asthma symptoms varies according to change in external and internal environment.
  • Asthma attacks are rising now a days because,
  • The children are less exposed to infection and their immune system becomes sensitive to allergens. These children are prone to have asthma attacks during growing period.
  • Exposure to indoor allergens such as dust, pollen is high as we spend more time in our indoors.
  • Bronchodilators are highly beneficial to relieve Asthma attacks.

Lung cancer : Smoking lung cancer, causes and symptoms

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to caner in the world, and is confirmed that smoking lungs are most prone to have lung cancer. Smoking lungs are formed because of cigarette smoking and nicotine in the cigarette makes individual to addict and prolonged cigarette smoking causes smoking lungs and leads to smoking lung cancer.

Lungs have main functions of blood purification and converts deoxygenated blood into oxygenated blood. The alveoli performs the gas exchange of blood and is the vital process. When the lung epithelial altered, it alters the blood purification method, and the whole body nourishment is affected. So maintain the healthy lungs by quitting smoking.

Facts about smoking lung cancer

Most of ex smokers think that they won’t get lung cancer after cessation of smoking but even they are at risk of developing smoking lung cancer. First, most of cigarette smokers start smoking as a joy and to pleasure. Later it develops into habit and they become addicted to smoking.

The prolonged smoking destroys the lung surfactant and lung epithelium is also becomes damaged with smoke and chemicals present in the smoke. The main chemical which causes lung destruction and leads to lung cancer is nicotine. Even a passive smoker, who inhales smoke exhaled from smoker is also at risk of developing smoking lungs cancer. Even all tobacco products used by human beings are injurious health.

Now a days smoking has become a fashion and most of youth are using smoking as the reliever of mental stress, and is a wrong belief. These are at risk of future smoking lungs cancer.

Causes and symptoms

Lung cancers are of two types Small cell lung cancer and non- small cell lung cancer. Cigarette smoking has 4,000 chemicals and most of these are causative factors of smoking lungs cancer.The person who smokes a pack of cigarette per day have 25 % high risk smoking lungs cancer then the person who doesn’t smokes. 90 % lung cancers are caused because of tobacco products usage and smoking contributes more for lung cancer. How long a person smokes also confirms the development of lung cancer.

Bells palsy : Causes, symptoms and treatment of facial muscle paralysis

Bells palsy

Temporary paralysis of facial muscles, with unknown cause is called Bell’s palsy. Bell’s palsy is the disorder of facial muscles control, due to paralysis of facial nerve. Bell’s palsy may affect only one side or both the sides of facial muscles. Brain tumor, stroke, lyme disease and other conditions causes Facial paralysis. If the facial muscle paralysis is of unknown cause is called Bell’s palsy.

Bell’s palsy is named so because Scottish anatomist Charles Bell described this type of facial muscle paralysis. Bell’s palsy is commonly a Mononeuropathy, (single nerve is damaged) causes Acute facial nerve paralysis.

Bell’s palsy is a Idiopathic, unilateral, facial nerve paralysis leads to facial muscle disorder. Bell’s palsy may be complete or partial. Bell’s palsy usually affects one side of facial muscles. Bell’s palsy may start suddenly, with in a day with symptoms such as eye and mouth droops, as one can’t shut them. If not treated within 48 hours of onset, Symptoms becomes worst.

Causes of Bell’s palsy

Usually Bell’s palsy has no definite causes, the believed factors are….

Herpes simplex virus, Chickenpox, Mumps, Herpes zoster (shingles), mononucleosis or HIV, and some bacterial infections causes Facial nerve paralysis or Bell’s palsy.

Pregnant women, diabetic or sick with common cold or flu patients are at risk of getting Bell’s palsy. Viral infection is the common cause of facial nerve swelling.

Lyme disease or Tuberculosis also leads to facial muscle paralysis or bell’s palsy.

Typhoid fever, Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Frequent middle ear infections, leads to bell’s palsy.

Trauma or injury to head or face,

Guillain barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Neurosarcoidosis, and other Neurological disorders Can lead to Facial nerve paralysis or Bells palsy.

Nerve compression due any Tumor in the body,

Influenza, Common cold and other viral infections also causes Bells palsy.

Symptoms of Bell’s palsy

Symptoms of Bell’s palsy varies form mild to severe, on the extent of facial nerve paralysis or damage.

Facial weakness or paralysis are the common symptoms with Bells palsy.

Dry eye or mouth and problems tasting,

Bells palsy affects unilaterally, both upper and lower part of the facial muscles. Only one percent of cases may affect with bilateral bells palsy. Along with paralysis of facial muscles,

  • Drooling
  • Dry mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Facial twitching
  • Facial tingling
  • Moderate to severe headache
  • Neck pain,
  • Inability to close or blink the eye,
  • Excess tearing, and dry eyes
  • Impaired sense of taste
  • memory problems
  • Inability to blink or close the eye, tearing, and dry eyes
  • Impaired sense of taste
  • Balance problems,
  • Ipsilateral limb paresthesias,
  • Ipsilateral limb weakness

Treatment of bell’s palsy

Some patients with Bell’s palsy need no treatment, as cure occurs naturally. Three out of four patients need treatment. Most of patients improve within 2 weeks, even with or without treatment. Complete recovery from Bell’s palsy occurs within 4 to 6 months.

Antivirals and corticosteroids are used to treat Bells palsy.

Symptomatic treatment is given to treat Bells palsy.

Seizure: types, causes, symptoms and treatment

Over activity of muscles  due to hyperactivity of nervous impulses is called as seizures. Seizure is the mental disorder, can affect all the age group. Children are more affected with seizure. Repeated seizure attacks are called as Convulsions. Tonic clonic muscle movement is the main symptom of seizure. Seizure is studied under the neuroscience.

Causes of seizures

  • Some medicines,
  • Neural abnormalities,
  • Family history of Epilepsy,
  • high fevers,
  • head injuries
  • Brain disorder leads to recurring seizure  because of epilepsy.

Signs and Symptoms of Seizure

  • Change in body movement or function,
  • Altered  sensation,
  • Lack of awareness,
  • Behavioral  changes,
  • Involuntary contraction of muscles,
  • Mental confusion,
  • Sudden over contraction of muscles and tonic clonic seizure.

Status Epilepticus : A prolonged state of unconsciousness for a long period even for an hour is the symptom of status epilepticus type of seizure.

sudden, abnormal electrical activity in the brain causes seizure. Rapid and repeated attacks of seizures are called convulsions. All seizures are not convulsions, but all convulsions are seizures. There are different types of seizures on the nature of origin and symptoms of seizures.

Main types of seizures

  • Partial seizures or Focal seizures : These type of seizures belong to a particular part of the body.
  • Generalized seizures  : Both sides of brain produce abnormal, excessive electrical impulses and whole body is involved.
  • Usually a seizure can stay for 30 seconds to 2 minutes and doesn’t cause any harm to seizure affected individual. If a seizure lasts for more than five minutes, it becomes medical emergency and need immediate care.

Seizure medications

Medicines are the best treatment for seizures.

  • Phenobarbital,
  • Carbamazepine,
  • Sodium valproate,

Brain lesions : Brain damage, Causes, treatment

Brain lesions

An abnormal area of brain tissue anatomically or physiologically is called as brain lesion. The MRI scan shows the shadow area or abnormal image, which confirms, the brain lesions. The brain lesions may be formed as a blood clot, cerebral hemorrhage, etc.

MRI scan doesn’t confirms clear diagnosis of brain lesions and careful assessment is needed to diagnose brain lesions. Familial history of brain lesions is one of the risk factor for development of brain lesions. Mechanical or internal brain damage is also considered as brain lesion.

Researchers have confirmed that nearly 5 % of individuals who have brain lesions are prone to have heart holes, i.e. impaired closure of foreman ovale.

Causes of brain lesions

  • Unstable blood pressure also causes white matter brain lesions.
  • Previous head injury,
  • Genetic mutation also causes brain lesions.
  • Accumulation of death nerve cells also causes micro lesions in old age people.
  • Head trauma with incomplete healing,
  • Cerebral Stroke
  • Brain tumors (benign or malignant)
  • Internal cerebral hemorrhage,
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Brain injury
  • Congenital brain anomalies, such as hydrocephalus

Severe migraine headaches  are caused because brain lesions. MRI scan of individuals with migraine headaches shows presence of brain lesions. The early detection and treatment should be given to prevent further complications. Presence of small brain lesions may not cause any trouble to individuals and large lesions should be treated immediately ; otherwise brain function may be altered. Some lesions are formed after strokes and brain function is disturbed as the paralysis occurs.

Symptoms of large brain lesions

  • Sense of smell impaired,
  • Unable to taste properly,
  • Unable to balance the body,
  • Hand tremors,
  • Mental confusion
  • some lesions causes dementia and cerebral stroke… are the some symptoms of brain lesions, which affects different functional centers in the body.
  • Multiple brain lesions are found in some individuals, and these brain lesions causes sever symptoms such as mental confusion, etc.. Some mental disorders are such as organic disorders of brain may be caused by untreated brain lesions. Parenchymal brain lesions causes Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis  in neonates and children.The neonates will have smaller brain lesion and elders children will have large lesions.

People who eat fish high with omega 3 fatty acids more than three times a day are at lower risk of developing silent brain lesions. Brain aging can be slow down by taking certain food stuffs in the diet. Brain damage of different origins should be avoided to prevent mental abnormalities.

Schizophrenia symptoms: delusions, hallucinations and disordered speech

Schizophrenia is the mental disorder, characterized by brain disorder and deviation of behaviour from reality. Hallucinations and delusions are common symptoms of Schizophrenia. Some schizophrenia  symptoms are common in both adults and Childhood schizophrenia.

Symptoms of schizophrenia

  • Hallucinations
  • delusions
  • racing thoughts
  • apathy
  • lack of emotion
  • poor or nonexistent social functioning
  • cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are disorganized thoughts
  • difficulty in  concentrating, in following instructions
  • difficulty completing tasks
  • memory problems.
  • disorganized speech
  • disorganized behavior
  • the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia differ from individual to individual, both in pattern and severity. Not every person with schizophrenia will have all symptoms. The symptoms of schizophrenia may also change with duration of illness.

psychiatrist will make diagnosis with different assessments and procedures and provide a treatment as per need of mental illness. Identifying schizophrenia symptoms is very important to diagnose and treat schizophrenia in adults and children.


A delusion is a firm and strong belief with something and the schizophrenia affected individual believes even wrong as right. delusions are common schizophrenia symptoms seen in 90% of schizophrenia patients.

Delusions of persecution — Belief that others, may present really are an assumption that they are trying to kill him or harm him. schizophrenia patients complaints that others are mixing poison in food, some one is coming with gun, some one robbed their property, others cheated  etc are the symptoms of schizophrenia with delusions.

Delusions of reference — A neutral environmental event becomes a  special and personal meaning to schizophrenic patients. For example an individual with schizophrenia symptoms might believe that a president has send a message to him, a minister has invited him for a dinner, etc.

Delusions of grandeur — schizophrenia symptoms with delusions of grandeur are that the schizophrenia person believes that he has a super power, he can become god , he is a leader and he can do anything, every one has to follow  his order etc .

Delusions of control — Schizophrenia symptoms  with delusions of control are the patient complaints that some one is copying my thoughts, he has stolen my idea, i invented radio but they cheated me and gave their name etc..


Hallucinations are the wrong or false perception in the absence of stimuli. Hallucinations are the main schizophrenia symptoms  involve any of the five senses, auditory hallucinations such as  hearing voices or some  sound with absence of any external sound are most common symptoms of schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are also relatively common.

Schizophrenic  hallucinations may be  meaningful to the Schizophrenic person experiencing them.  The voices are those of someone they know and the words they hear are bad to them and like abusing others.  Hallucinations become more when individual is alone.

Disorganized speech

Fragmented thinking is one of the  schizophrenia symptoms. They have shift of thoughts, change of topic, talking something unrelated, meaning less speaking, murmuring, making unusual sounds are common  schizophrenia symptoms with disorganized speech. Creating new meaning to words, joining unrelated words, Repetition of words and sentences, meaningless use of rhyming words etc..

The negative schizophrenia symptoms

  • Flattened or blunted affect: Lack of emotional expression, including a flat voice, failure to have eye contact, and blank or weak facial expressions.
  • Avolition: Lack of interest or enthusiasm; unable to pursue goal-driven activities.
  • Catatonia: Apparent unawareness about environment, near total absence of motion and speech, unnecessary body movements and different postures, deficit self-care activities such as taking bath etc.
  • Alogia: Difficulties with speech, inability to converse, short and sometimes no replies to questions, interrupted communication

Bloody mucus stool : causes, symptoms, Treatment

Bloody mucus stool

Individuals with lower intestinal and rectal complaints usually passes hard stool looks covered with mucus. Bloody mucus stool may be associated with pain or without pain. Hemorrhoids or  Anal fissures are the common cause of hard stool with blood and mucus.

Painful defecation and passing bright blood may be because of presence of hemorrhoids. Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the main cause of bloody hard mucus stool. Colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the colon leads to stool with mucus and bleeding. Diarrhea or passing loose stools are the main symptoms of Colitis.

Causes of bloody mucus stool

Polyp present in lower rectum  also leads to  passing stool associated with intermittently bleeding.  Causes of bloody mucus stool are:

  • Bloody diarrhea,
  • Bloody mucus in stool,
  • internal bleeding

Some possible causes of bloody diarrhea are  include:-

  • Gastroenteritis
  • Regional enteritis,
  • Colitis,
  • Rectal bleeding,
  • Acute digestive infection
  • Acute food poisoning
  • Shigella food poisoning,
  • salmonella food poisoning,
  • Ulcerative colitis,
  • Crohn’s disease
  • celiac etc

Diagnosis of Bloody mucus stool

History collection reveals presence of any diseases, colour of blood, pain is present or not, etc. And feeling any mass in the rectum also helps in easy diagnosing. After diagnosis, treating the underlying cause, blood and mucus in the stool can be stopped.