Tuberous sclerosis: causes, symptoms and diagnosis

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous Sclerosis is a genetic disease, forms benign tumor in the brain and other vital organs of the body such as heart, kidney, lungs, eyes, skin etc. Tuberous Sclerosis mainly affects the central nervous system.

Tuberous Sclerosis is manifested by seizures, convulsions, behavioural problems, mental retardation, skin disorders, pulmonary and renal disorders, etc. Tuberous Sclerosis may be present at birth but the symptoms are seen during growing period of the child. The gyri, foldings of brain becomes thick and firm in the TSC affected  individual.

Causes of Tuberous Sclerosis

Genetic cause is the main cause of tuberous Sclerosis. Inheritance of autosomal dominant genes, causes Tuberous Sclerosis.


  • Learning difficulties are the main symptoms of tuberous sclerosis, found in 50 % totally affected.
  • Less intelligent quotient, ( IQ ), when large part of brain is involved.
  • Autism is seen in nearly 25 % of Tuberous Sclerosis affected.
  • Behavioural problems,
  • Difficulty in adjustment to environment,
  • Aggression,  OCD, etc.

The Tuberous Sclerosis individual Will have the symptoms of renal, pulmonary or integumentary system on the basis of tumors presence on those organs.

Diagnosis of Tuberous sclerosis

  • Family history helps in diagnosing tuberous Sclerosis, as it helps in knowing any history of Genetic cause.
  • Woods Lamp is used to visualise the skin, mouth, etc..
  • CT scan, MRI scans provides clear image of the affected part.
  • Ultrasound Scan is used to find tumors in the kidneys,
  • Echo cardiogram, Fundoscopy, are the diagnostic tests performed for Tuberous Sclerosis.

Underactive thyroid, Thyroid disease symptoms conditions

When the thyroid secretes low thyroid hormone is called as under active thyroid or hypothyroidism . Thyroid is one of the important endocrine gland situated in the neck region  in front of the trachea joins to larynx. Thyroid measures 4cm height and 3 cm width. Thyroid secretes the hormones called T4- thyroxine and T3 – triiodothyronine. These thyroid hormones have very important vital functions in the body. Low thyroid levels should be treated to prevent metabolic disorders.

Control of body metabolism is the main function of thyroid gland. The thyroid hormones are less secreted when thyroid becomes under active and is a thyroid disease. Under active thyroid leads to hypothyroidism. Body metabolism is altered with under active thyroid gland. Thyroid function is to regulate body metabolism, and the change in body metabolism causes altered vital signs. Thyroid weight gain is common with under active thyroid or hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) : Controls the production of thyroid hormone. Pituitary gland secretes and controls the release of thyroid stimulating hormone.

Causes of under active thyroid

Iodine insufficiency : Iodine is the major element needed to secrete thyroid hormone in the body. Iodine deficiency in diet causes under active thyroid. Iodine supplementation with Salt helps in preventing Iodine deficiency.

Autoimmune thyroiditis : Autoimmune disorder destroys the thyroid and leads to less secretion of thyroid hormones.

  • Anti thyroid drugs and radio iodide therapy causes under active thyroid.
  • Congenital hypothyroidism, babies have at the time of birth.
  • Older people are more prone to have under active thyroid.
  • Women are more affected than males.
  • thyroid tumor, or thyroid cancer,
  • Autoimmune disorder also causes Hypothyroidism.
  • Certain medications such as  lithium carbonate and amiodarone causes under active thyroid.

Symptoms of Under active thyroid

Symptoms of under active thyroid develops gradually and may vary from mild to severe.

  • Tiredness and feeling sleepy,
  • Cold body temperature,
  • Dry and pale skin,
  • Thin and coarse hair and brittle nails,
  • Mental depression,
  • Weight gaining,
  • Muscle weakness and reduced movements,
  • Hoarse and croaky voice,
  • Decreased memory power,
  • Constipation is associated with under active thyroid,
  • Problems related to fertility,
  • Irregular menstrual periods, and
  • Slow heart rate

Treatment of Under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism

Thyroxine replacement  and levothyroxine in tablet form is the main treatment for Hypothyroidism. Lower dose is started first and dose of medication is gradually increased later. Blood test have very significant value in fixing the dose for an individual with under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism. Side-effects are less with levothyroxine and symptoms such as anxiety and weight loss are seen on prolonged replacement of levothyroxine hormone. Periodical medical check up is suggested for patients with under active thyroid or Hypothyroidism. Normal thyroid levels are shown in the healthy individual.

Glomerulonephritis : Causes, Types, Treatment


Inflammation of glomerulus of kidney or nephron is called as Glomerulonephritis. Kidney has the minute units called nephrons . Nephrons are the structural and functional units of kidney.

The glomerulus apparatus is the part of nephron, which filters the blood.


Inflammation of the glomerulus is called as Glomerulonephritis.


  • Chronic glomerulonephritis and
  • Acute glomerulonephritis

Chronic Glomerulonephritis :- is the gradual, progressive inflammation of glomeruli, causes Scarring, sclerosis and ultimately leads to kidney failure.

Acute Glomerulonephritis :- is of sudden onset in nature and healing is fast. Acute glomerulonephritis caused by bacterial infection. Impetigo and other skin diseases may cause Acute glomerulonephritis.

Causes of glomerulonephritis

  • Bacterial infection, such as streptococcus.
  • Underlying diseases,
  • Throat infection,
  • untreated urinary tract infection, etc..

Treatment of Glomerulonephritis

  • Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for glomerulonephritis.
  • Fluid and electrolyte balance, is important.
  • Bed rest, supplement of low protein diet. etc..

Tongue cancer : causes and symptoms

Tongue cancer

Tongue cancer is the cancer type affects mouth and oropharynx.

Tongue has two parts, anterior tongue and base of tongue.

If anterior tongue gets cancer, it is known as oral cancer.

When the posterior base of tongue is affected with cancer is called as oropharyngeal cancer.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the common type of tongue cancer. Squamous cells are the flattened cells forms the mucus lining of mouth, nose, pharynx or throat.

Causes of tongue cancer

The exact causes of tongue cancer is not known.The suspected causes of tongue cancer are

  • Smoking tobacco,
  • chewing tobacco, and
  • excess alcohol consumption.

Symptoms of tongue cancer

These are the main symptoms of tongue cancer.

  • Red or white spot on the skin, for long time.
  • Chronic sore throat,
  • Numbness in tongue or mouth,
  • Bleeding of unknown origin in the tongue,
  • Pain while chewing or swallowing,
  • Sore spot on the tongue which has not healed,
  • Some times pain in ear

Drowsiness : Symptoms, Causes, Treatment


Drowsiness is the strong feel to sleep in the day time, the drowsiness compels to actual sleep, at right time or at inappropriate time, when the body feels so. Drowsiness is also called as Hypersomnia or Somnolence.

Drowsiness during day, even with sufficient sleep at night indicates sleeping disorder. Drowsiness due to fatigue is of short term and is experienced rarely. Some psycho-physical symptoms such as depression, Anxiety, Stress, and boredom also leads to Drowsiness.

Drowsiness is not a serious disorder but drowsiness leads to laziness and work output is very less. Proper health maintenance with exercise and healthy food keeps away the Drowsiness.

Causes of Drowsiness

  • Lack of sleep during night, and continuous working without sufficient sleep,
  • Tranquilizers, hypnotics or sleeping pills, and antihistamine medications causes Drowsiness.
  • Short duration sleep or lack of sleep,
  • Infections such as Chronic bronchitis, infectious mononucleosis,
  • Diabetes and other systemic diseases,
  • Stroke,
  • Lack of exercise, laziness, less physical work,
  • Excess alcohol consumption,
  • Medical disorders such as Hypercalcemia, hypothyroidism, hyponatremia, etc.
  • Narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders.

Drowsiness Treatment

Relieving the cause of drowsiness ,

Treat any psycho-physical disorders such as Depression, anxiety, etc to relieve Drowsiness.

If Drowsiness is due to use of some medications, consult the doctor to use any alternative drugs. Don’t stop the medications without doctor’s suggestion.

Obesity induced Drowsiness can be relieved by weight reducing.

Avoid drowsiness inducing foods during day time.

Relieve emotional stress,

Medical disorders such as hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia and hypernatremia should be treated to relieve Drowsiness.

Sufficient sleep during night helps lot relieving Drowsiness.

Treat Narcolepsy, to relieve drowsiness.

Carbon monoxide monitor is used to check the excessive carbon monoxide in the surrounding air of home environment, as excess carbon monoxide induces sleep.

When to contact Doctor

If you feel that Drowsiness is due any above causes, you can seek medical help. Some times infections and disorders with central nervous system also causes drowsiness. to check CNS abnormality CT scan, and MRI are done. Proper history collection from the drowsiness affected person, helps in finding the cause of drowsiness and treating.

Assessment such as:-

  • Sleeping duration,
  • how long you sleep ?
  • Do you Snore while sleeping ?
  • Are you obese ?
  • Taking any medications ?
  • Have any other chronic diseases ?

All these questions helps in Diagnosing and treating Drowsiness, a sleep disorder.

Occupational cancer : causes and prevention of cancer

Occupational cancer

Cancer caused from the occupation, or due to nature of work is called as Occupational cancer. Occupational cancer is a serious problem of the industry. The sites of the body usually affected by occupational exposure are skin, lungs, urinary bladder, and blood forming organs such as spleen etc.

Studies conducted from the different associations on occupational exposure and cancer, provides the approximate data that, 20000 cancer deaths, and 40000 new cancer cases in the United States are due to occupational exposure.

Millions of workers are working in the industries, and being exposed to occupational hazards even after those substances are carcinogenic.

Types of occupational cancer

Skin Cancer

 It is found that cancer of scrotum and the skin in the other part of body was caused by coal tar, X- rays, certain oils and dyes. According to statistics, nearly 75 % of occupational cancers are skin cancer.Skin cancer are an occupational hazard among gas workers, tar distillers, oil refiners, dye, stuff makers, road makers, and in industries associated with the use of mineral oil, pitch, tar,and related compounds.

Lung cancer

It is a occupational hazard in the gas industry, asbestos industry, nickel and chromium work, arsenic roasting plants, and mining of radio active substances causes occupational lung cancer. Lung cancer is also associated with smoking.

Bladder cancer

 It is normally caused in aniline industry and rubber industry. Bladder cancer or occupational bladder cancer is caused due to exposure aromatic amines. Bladder cancer is also caused by exposure to chemicals in dyeing industries, rubber, gas and electric cables industries.


  it is the another name of blood cancer. Exposure to roentgen rays, an radioactive substances causes leukemia.

these are the main occupational cancer or occupational hazards.

Polio : poliomyelitis, causes, signs and symptoms


Polio is also called as poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis. Polio is a viral infectious disease, contagious in nature. The highly infectious virus, polio virus causes polio the historically devastating disease. Polio has been eliminated from western countries during the later period of 20th century.

The word polio is derived from Greek word polio which means grey and myelin which means spinal cord. so the meaning of poliomyelitis is infection of grey matter of spinal cord. usually 90 % of polio affected individuals does not show any symptoms. Affected individuals shows some symptoms after the polio virus enters the blood stream. Only one percent of effectively infected individuals with polio virus shows the flaccid paralysis, after the central nervous system or spinal cord is affected.

Causes of Polio

Member of the genus enterovirus, POLIO virus causes POLIO. Polio virus is a RNA virus inhabited in the human intestine and infects only the human beings.Three serotypes of polio virus are present type 1, type 2, and type 3. All the three serotypes are covered with capsid protein and all are extremely virulent. Type 1 polio virus is most commonly infecting the human beings and leads to paralysis. Till the vaccination for polio was invented in 1955, the polio affected millions of children world wide.

Polio can infect human beings at any age but, children are most infected as the immunity is not completely developed.

Effective vaccination against polio was invented in 1955 and due to vaccination, polio was eliminated from USA in the year 1979 and from the western hemisphere in 1991.

Signs and symptoms of polio

Nearly 90 % individuals infected with polio virus shows no symptoms and polio infection becomes Asymptomatic. Only 4 to 8 % of infected with polio virus shows the following symptoms.

Abortive polio : is the mild form of polio infection, and the individuals nervous system is not affected. Polio infected individuals shows mild symptoms such as flu like fever, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, sore throat , etc..

Non paralytic Polio : is a serious form of polio infection, leads to aseptic meningitis. The symptoms such as sensitivity to light, heaviness of head are common with this type of polio infection.

Paralytic polio : is a severe debilitating form of polio, leads to paralysis. Only 0.1 to 1.8 % of human are affected with this type polio infection and severe mobility problems and neurological problems are observed.

People with abortive polio and/or non-paralytic polio recovers fast from polio infection. In case of paralytic polio, the polio virus enters blood stream from intestinal tract, and infects nervous system. When the nervous system is affected muscles becomes paralysed and even the severe polio virus infection may lead to Death.

Gout disease: causes, diet, attack, treatment and Prevention

The form of arthritis with inflammation of joints is known as Gout. Even a small touch can cause severe pain  . Gout pain is a pain of high intensity and highly difficult to bear pain in gout arthritis. Big toe is the mainly affected joint with Gout. Ankle joint, wrist joint, knee joint, fingers and elbow are also affected with Gout.

Gout causes, what causes Gout ?

  • Increased uric acid level in the body,
  • Overproduction uric acid by the body
  • Reduced uric acid excretion from the kidneys,
  • Inherited genes form parents to children cause  gout.
  • Eating foods rich in purines, such as meat etc causes gout.

Mono sodium urate crystals formed from excess uric acid accumulation in joints and connective tissue leads to sever joint inflammation and severe gout pain.

Gout diet

  • Orange juice and water is recommended for first week of gout attack. Fasting with orange juice is recommended to treat gout naturally with gout diet.
  • Gout diets include fruits such as grapes, apples, pears, peaches, oranges and pineapples.
  • Vegetables in gout diet include beets, celery, watercress, turnips, squash, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage and potatoes etc.
  • foods low in purine and doesn’t stimulate excess uric acid production.
  • wheat tortilla made wholly of  wheat flour, cottage cheese and buttermilk.

Patient should avoid purine and uric acid producing foods in diet such as meats, eggs and fish.

Gout patients should also avoid tea, coffee, sugar, white flour and their products.

Gout attack

Gout attack is the sudden intense single joint inflammation with severe gout pain. Redness and swelling are present at the inflammation site of gouty arthritis. Gout attack may last from four to six days. Subsequent attacks are rare and gout attacks do not last for weeks, months or years. Gout attack disappears after a week even with no treatment. Severe recurrent gout attack causes injury to joints.

Acute gout attack : Acute gout attack may last for a week. Gout medicines such as Colchicine Corticosteroids NSAIDS relives acute Gout pain.

Gout treatments

  • Gout medicine : are highly beneficiary in gout treatment. Food modification also prevents further gout attacks. Medicine used to treat Gout are
  • Acetaminophen : An analgesic to reduce joint pain.
  • NSAIDS : Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and reduces gout pain.
  • Colchicine : Reduces inflammation and attacks are reduced.
  • Corticosteroids : Reduces inflammation at the joint by suppressing immune system.
  • Probenecid : Excretes excess uric acid through urine and decreases uric acid levels in blood. Probenecid is good gout medicine.
  • Colbenemid : the drug is the combination of Probenecid, Colchicine and uricosuric agent, prevents constipation.
  • Allopurinol : is the gout medicine, lowers blood uric acid level by inhibiting uric acid synthesis in body. Allopurinol is best gout medicine as it blocks the conversion of purine present in foods into uric acid.
  • Even though gout cure is not completely possible, temporary gout cure is achieved with gout medicines. Gout treatment relieves pain, and reduces further inflammation of joints.

Gout prevention

Got prevention is the best method of relieving pain related to arthritis. Weight reduction helps in prevention of Gout by reducing weight on the Joint. Drink enough water to excrete excess uric acid from the body and it helps lot in gout prevention. Reduce hyperuricemia with medications and decreased uric acid level prevents gout arthritis. Dietary changes include consuming diets with less purines, as Purine rich diet causes gout. avoid purine rich foods.

Alfa Thalassemia : causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment


Thalassemia is a autosomal recessive blood disease, is an inherited genetic disorder. Thalassemia is a group of genetic disorders of blood, characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production. Due to abnormal hemoglobin, the number of hemoglobin decreases in the blood and destruction of RBC takes place due to genetic inheritance. Thalassemia is also called as Mediterranean anaemia.

Description of Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which quantitative abnormal hemoglobin, i.e. very less number of globin in hemoglobin. Genes which produce the protein present in hemoglobin called GLOBINS are altered in case of Thalassemia. Hemoglobin is produced from two  sets of genes present on different chromosomes and produces two different pairs of protein.  One set of protein is alpha and another is Beta.

Every hemoglobin molecule has both alpha and beta protein. Connection of two alpha proteins to two beta proteins in the hemoglobin enhances binding and releasing of oxygen. Alpha protein is controlled by chromosome number 16 and beta protein is controlled by chromosome number 11. In thalassemia, when any one of these genes fails to produce any one of the protein, leads to Thalassemia. In alpha Thalassemia, one or more genes are missed and in case of beta thalassemia, genes are present but fails to produce normal hemoglobin.

Types of Thalassemia

Alpha thalassemia : Usually found southeast Asia . In this type of thalassemia, alpha protein synthesis is blocked due to genetic abnormality, resulting in abnormal hemoglobin production. Chinese, people form Asia and black people are usually affected form Alpha Thalassemia. Untreated, severe form of alpha thalassemia leads to still birth.

Beta thalassemia : Commonly found in mediterranean region and instead of beta protein is present, it becomes unable to produce beta protein, and causes beta thalassemia.

Causes of Thalassemia

  • Genetic inheritance,
  • Gene mutation,
  • Children may show the anaemia after age of two, due to inherited genes from parents,
  • Alteration in the hemoglobin chain,
  • Family history of thalassemia, etc.

Symptoms of Thalassemia

  • Fatigue,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Icterus or Jaundice,
  • Facial bone deformity.

Diagnostic Tests of Thalassemia

On physical examination confirms Enlarged spleen,

Peripheral blood smear test shoes abnormal, small red blood cells,

Anaemia is confirmed from complete blood count.

Abnormal hemoglobin are found on Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Treatment of Thalassemia

Regular blood transfusion are necessary to treat severe Thalassemia. Folate supplements are also provided. Iron supplements and oxidative drugs are avoided in patients who receive blood transfusion.

Chelation Therapy : Is needed to remove iron form the body, from the patient who received regular blood transfusion.

Bone marrow transplantation is also used as a super speciality treatment of Thalassemia.

Mouth sores : causes and treatment

Mouth sore

Number of factors causes bacterial, viral or fungal infections of mouth. The mouth sore are the painful infections or rupture of the mucus membrane of mouth is called as mouth sore. A loose orthodontic wire, improper implantation of denture, sharp edge of broken teeth causes mouth sore.  Mouth sore are the common mouth problem that makes an individual very difficult to eat and even to drink hot or cold drinks.   Mouth sore may occur as  symptoms of a particular disease or disorder. Examination of mouth by  a dentist is needed to visualize  mouth sore that lasts a week or longer.

Common mouth sores and treatment

Canker ulcers

these are small ulcers which have red border and white or grey base. These mouth sore appear on the mucus membrane of the mouth and are not contagious. Number of ulcers may vary from one or more mouth sore. No exact cause of canker ulcer is known. it is believed that stress, fatigue, allergy to certain substances causes mouth ulcer. No specific treatment is needed to treat mouth sore or Canker ulcers. Topical anesthetics and antimicrobial mouth rinses  are used to treat mouth sore of this type. Avoid hot and spicy food until the healing of mouth sore.

Cold sore

These  sore are called as herpes simplex or fever blisters. Usually occurs on the soft membrane of lips, or under the nose. Cold or flu infection of mouth is the common cause of cold sore of mouth. Mouth pain is common with cold sore and is the recurring mouth problem in some individuals. The sore heals normally and in some recurring cases antivirals are prescribed.


these are white, thick patches appears inside the cheeks, mouth gums and tongue. Tobacco users are more prone to have such mouth sore and excess cell growth occurs on the sores. Biopsy of mouth sore is done for further diagnosis and treatment. Advice the patients to avoid tobacco and cause of lesion is found and treated.


Is the fungal infection of mouth because of infection of candida albicans, which reproduce in the mucus wall of mouth. Denture wearers are more prone to have candidiasis mouth infection is the common problem of mouth. Antibiotic treatment is needed to reduce the symptoms and to treat the mouth sore. Provide oral hygiene to prevent the further complications.