Abortion pills : Best birth control pills, side effects of contraceptive pills

Abortion

Most of the time  the couples surrender to an  unprotected sex, and fails to any contraceptive or may ignore it. During the absence of menstruation next month, the lady come to realize to doubt of pregnancy.  She will get the pregnancy strip and confirms her pregnancy.  What to do ? how to remove unwanted pregnancy ?  any abortion pills ?  how does an abortion pill works ?  is abortion pill is safe ?  here is an answer for all these abortion related questions:-

Abortion pill

To terminate the unwanted pregnancy the medicine mifipristone  was introduced and also accepted as abortion pill in the year 2000 in united state. Mifipristone is known as RU486 in US.  The drug mifipristone was first introduced in France and over all controversy the drug has been approved as As abortion pill.

Terminating an unwanted pregnancy is known as abortion. Till  the 49th day of pregnancy can be terminated using medicine,  i.e.  Abortion pills.  The doctor will confirm the pregnancy, commonly using pregnancy confirmation strip.  Once the pregnancy is confirmed, under the act of medical termination of pregnancy, if the pregnancy is earlier or below nine weeks  the ABORTION pills are given by the doctor.  US FDA has approved RU – 486 as abortion pill.

Medical termination of pregnancy using Abortion pill has much benefits over surgical methods of pregnancy termination.

Who can take abortion pill ?

Women who are pregnant not more than 49 days or 9 weeks can take abortion pill mifipristone for pregnancy termination. Women with kidney, liver, heart disease or HIV can’t take the abortion pill, as abortion pill is contraindicated in these diseases.

Mifipristone or RU – 486 can be taken at the clinic or home.  Abortion pill or mifipristone  dilates cervix, and contracts the uterus as the embryo can be expelled out.  Mild discomfort is common with mifipristone.

Side effects of abortion pills

  • Nausea,
  • Headache,
  • Discomfort,
  • Heavy bleeding
  • tiredness, and
  • Deep cramps,  are the common side effects of abortion pill RU – 486.

Severe side effects of abortion pills  are

1. Severe bleeding more than 12  hour,
2. Unbearable contractions of uterus,
3. Big clots associated with bleeding,
4. Fever morethan101.5 degree F, more than 6 hours,
5. Allergy soon after the abortion pill is consumed.

Self medication is dangerous and a prescription by the registered physician and effective medical supervision is needed to avoid any complications of medical Abortion with Abortion pills.

Oral Contraceptives : procedure, precautions and side effects

Oral contraceptives

Oral contraceptives are the the pills of Oestrogen and progesterone, hormone compounds. The oral contraceptives need to be  taken after fifth day of menstruation till 24 day to avoid unwanted pregnancy. much care has to be taken while taking oral contraceptives:

  •   If patient forgets to take tablet on particular day, two tablets can be taken in the next day.
  •   Cigarette smoking increases the risk of side effects with oral contraceptives.
  •   Nausea or vomiting sensation is the common symptom associated with Oral contraceptive ingestion.
  •   Oral contraceptives are the effective measures of preventing unwanted pregnancy.
  •   Fluid retention and Break through bleeding are the other side effected find with oral contraceptive.
  •   Diabetes may be aggravated with oral contraceptive use.
  •   Oral contraceptives come in pockets of 21, 23 or 91 tablets.
  •   Seek medical help if you find any discomfort or Side effects.

Rh compatibility and incompatibility

Rh incompatibility

Rh factor is the protein present in blood and blood groups are termed positive or negative on the basis of Rh factor. If mother is Rh-negative and father is Rh-positive, the mother may get aborted because of Rh-incompatibility.

When Rh antigen introduced into the circulation of Rh negative person, it stimulates the production of antibody in the form of agglutinin. Two forms of agglutinins are  formed i.e Albumin agglutinin and saline agglutinin.

In Rh sensitised mother, antibodies can be detected at 34th week of pregnancy. Usually the Rh-compatibility test is conducted twice during pregnancy. If  the mother is sensitised during last pregnancy, antibodies are found  in the early stage of next pregnancy.

Blood group of only 15 to 17% are Rh negative. The appearance of antibodies for first time in the later stage of pregnancy indicates, the fetus is stimulating maternal antibody production.

Uterine repture during pregnancy: causes, symptoms and treatment

Uterine rupture  is the obstetrical problem or complication of pregnancy. injury to the continuum of events at the weak point of the uterus. Uterine rupture is normally noticed by the obstetrician or doctor while conducting Cesarean section. The tearing of uterus normal continuity and bleeding occurs from the site of uterine rupture.

  • Uterine rupture usually occurs during early stage of labor.
  • abnormal fetal heart rate indicates uterine rupture.
  • uterine scar formed because of previous cesarean section increases the risk of uterine rupture.
  • Uterine rupture in some mothers develop at the end stage of pregnancy.
  • labor augmentation by use of oxytocin causes uterine rupture.
  • abdominal pain and bleeding are the common symptoms.
  • emergency care includes laparotomy and cesarean section
  • administration of fluids and blood transfusion.

Risk factors and causes of  uterine rupture

  • Women who have had previous surgery of  the uterus are at risk of uterine rupture.
  • Uterine rupture occurs usually on upper muscular portion of uterus.
  • Prior classical Cesarean sections, where the incision is done in upper uterus.
  • incision extended through the full thickness of the uterine while  removal of fibroid tumors of uterine wall,
  • Uterine surgery which affects full depth of the muscular portion of the uterus wall also causes uterine rupture.
  • Grand multi para, i.e. mother have given birth to more than four babies and become pregnant have risk of uterine rupture.
  • Distended uterus in case of multiple pregnancy causes uterine rupture.
  • Transverse position of baby,
  • Use of labor inducing medications such as picotin, prostaglandins, also increases the risk of uterine rupture.

Treatment of uterine rupture

  • Deliver the baby by means  emergency cesarean section. hysterectomy is done if the damage to mother’s uterus is severe and the bleeding is not controlled. Otherwise, pregnant mother’s uterus can be repaired. The mother need blood transfusion as she loses excess blood during bleeding. Administer IV antibiotics to prevent infection.
  • Recovery from the surgery takes more than a week.
  • Take complete bed rest
  • Follow up medical care and take medications properly.

Breech delivery: breech presentation causes, types and injuries

If the buttocks are delivered first it is called as breech delivery. only 3 to 4% pregnancies are with breech presentation at birth. Breech position is an abnormal position and vertex presentation is normal birth presentation.

Most breech birth or breech presentation occur at the 32 week of gestation and at this time head of fetus is not turned down.  The main causes of breech presentation or birth are

  • Prematurity is the main cause of breech presentation. Increased amniotic fluid or polyhydraminos,
  • Fetal abnormalities such as hydrocephaly, anencephaly, and congenital abnormalities of fetus,
  • Maternal abnormalities such as Uterine abnormalities.
  • Placental abnormalities, Uterine fibroid and
  • Multiple pregnancy.

Types of breech presentation are

  • Frank breech presentation : baby’s buttocks comes first, and breech baby’s legs are flexed at the hip and extended at the knees (with feet near the ears). Nearly 65 to 70% of breech  delivery are in the frank breech position.
  • Complete breech delivery: the baby’s hips and knees are flexed so that the baby is sitting cross legged, with feet beside the bottom. This is not common as frank breech position.
  • Footling breech delivery : one or both feet come first, with the bottom at a higher position. This is footling breech position is rare at term but relatively common with premature fetuses.
  • * Kneeling breech delivery :  The breech baby is in a kneeling position, with one or both legs of breech baby are extended at the hips and flexed at the knees. This Kneeling breech delivery position is not common type of breech delivery.

Common injuries to breech babies during breech delivery

Umbilical cord prolapse : Is the common abnormality of breech delivery. As soon as the amniotic sac ruptures, the umbilical cord expels out. Due to umbilical cord prolapse the breech babies  receives less oxygen and becomes oxygen deprived.

Head injury : Injury to fetal skull or brain occurs as the late coming head of baby struggles to come out of maternal pelvis. Cranial lacerations, and intracranial hemorrhage may occur. Squeezing of abdomen causes damage to internal organs of breech baby.

Severe hemorrhage is the main complication to mother. Breech birth or breech delivery is one of the causes of maternal mortality. Hysterectomy is indicated in some mothers when uterine rapture occurs. External cephalic version is done in some mothers before labor starts.

Even most of the experienced doctors have stopped conducting birth canal breech delivery and they will plan for cesarean section to prevent injury to new born baby and to avoid maternal complications. It is confirmed that elective cesarean section is done by concerning fetal and maternal well being.

Pregnancy weight gain tips for normal and obese mothers

A number of physiological and metabolic changes that occur during pregnancy are responsible for pregnancy weight gain. Gaining adequate weight during pregnancy by eating a healthy balanced diet is very essential for well development of growing fetus. The diet during pregnancy should provide all nutrients that mother needs. Pregnancy weight gain is related to height weight and body mass index of pregnant mother.

The pregnancy weight gain happens as the baby grows, mother consumes good nutrients to serve the baby. Generally pregnant mother have to consume extra 100 to 300 more calories in order to serve the growing fetus.

Health care provider will tell how much weight the pregnant mother should gain during pregnancy. Pregnancy weight gain in normal mothers is nearly 9 to 10 kg. Mothers who are weak before pregnancy should increase the pregnancy weight gain than normal pregnant women. The mother who is obese before pregnancy should increase pregnancy weight gain by 3 to 4 kg. The medical advice is needed to maintain correct pregnancy weight gain.

Pregnancy weight gain is distributed as follow

  • Baby                                       – 8 pounds
  • Placenta                                – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Amniotic fluid                    – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Breast tissue                       – 2 to 3 pounds
  • blood supply                       – 4 pounds
  • uterus growth                     – 2 to 5 pounds
  • Increased fat in body      – 5 to 9 pounds
  • Total                      – 25 to 35 pounds.

Tips for weight maintenance

  • Eat frequent but small diet with good nutrients.
  • eat easy snacks on hand, nuts, raisins, cheese, crackers, dried fruit, and ice cream etc.
  • Use pulses and grams in food as it provides adequate protein to the body.
  • Milk and milk products can be used adequately as they provide most of the vital nutrients to the body and help in maintaining weight gain.
  • Eat fiber rich diet to  avoid constipation
  • green leaf vegetables are very essential food for pregnant mother to have an ideal weight gain and to provide enriched nutrients to pregnant mother.

Increased pregnancy weight gain! what to do ?

If you have increased weight during pregnancy in the first trimester or early pregnancy stage, don’t try to reduce the weight by avoiding food. Back ache and drowsiness are the common problem with increased pregnancy weight gain.  Use food with less fat and calories and use much green leaf vegetables to avoid further weight gain during pregnancy. Consult your doctor and ask him what all you can eat and in what quantities.

Anemia : Causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention of anemia

Anemia

Definition

Anemia can be defined as medical condition in which decrease in the red blood cell or hemoglobin less than 13.5 gm% in males and 12 gm% in females.


Causes of anemia

  • Anemia caused due to blood loss
  • Anemia caused due to decreased or fault in the bone marrow
  • Anemia caused due to abnormal destruction of red blood cells in the spleen and liver
  • Anemia Caused due to Blood Loss
  • When the blood loss occurs due to severe hemorrhage, there is loss of red blood cells leads to anemia.
  • Alimentary canal conditions such as ulcers, files, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) and cancer
  • Prolonged Use of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as paracetamol, aspirin etc, causes anemia.
  • Menstruation and during delivery, especially if menstrual bleeding is more than normal, antepartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage and if there are multiple pregnancies also causes anemia.
  • Severe blood loss in case of injury causes anemia.
  • Anemia Caused due to fault in the bone marrow production of red blood cells

Anemia occurs due to following reasons

#  Sickle cell anemia is also called as hereditary anemia

#  Iron deficiency anemia due lack of iron in the food and lack of absorption in the gut

#  Vitamin deficiency such as vitamin c and vitamin B

#   Bone marrow and stem cell problems that is due to carcinoma

Anemia Symptoms

The symptoms of the anemia includes the following:-

  • Fatigue
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Heart murmur
  • Enlargement of the spleen
  • Low blood pressure
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness Rapid breathing
  • Maroon, or visibly bloody stools
  • Trouble breathing
  • Dizziness
  • Pale or cold skin
  • Tired
  • Palpitations
  • Hair loss,
  • Malaise
  • Worsening of heart problems

Diagnosis of Anemia

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Red blood count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • White blood count
  • Platelet count
  • Differential count
  • Means corpuscular volume
  • Stool guaiac – Tests for blood in stool
  • Peripheral blood smear – Looks at the red blood cells under a microscope
  • Transferring level – Looks at a protein that carries iron around the body
  • Reticulocyte count
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • These are the tests done for diagnosis of anemia.

Anemia Treatment

Care at Home

1. Anemia can be treated at home by providing iron rich diet, adequate bed rest and by taking iron and folic acid tablets etc.
2. If the patient is having stomach ulcer he or she as to stop taking aspirin and medications such as ibuprofen etc.

Medical Treatment of anemia

Oral therapy for anemia:-  The medical treatment includes iron and folic acid tablets, oral solutions like ferrous fumarate and ferrous gluconate etc.

Parenteral therapy for anemia

Intramuscular injections: – Here injections are given in a Z track method and it is effective but having more side effects.

Blood transfusion for anemia : – In case of severe anemia the packed cell are transfused.

Oxygen – To ensure that each red blood cell can deliver the maximum oxygen to body tissues

Fluids – To help to elevate blood pressure when blood loss causes blood pressure to drop

Platelets – Replaces missing platelets when bleeding is severe Antibiotics are given to treat infections.

Erythropoietin is given to improve the red blood cell production. Surgery for anemia treatment includes Hysterectomy that is removal of the uterus will help to prevent the loss of the bleeding after the delivery and due to any carcinoma.

Follow-up care in anemia

Follow up care in anemia is very essential to prevent further occurrence of the anemia, it includes the regular check up, and continuation of the medications.


Prevention of anemia

Prevention of anemia can be achieved by regular check up and by early detection of the anemia and treatment. And taking iron rich diets like drumstick, green leafy vegetables, papaya, cereals and milk and milk products helps in preventing anemia.

Complications of anemia : Complications of the anemia includes the hypoxia, cardiac problems like cardiac failure, tissue hypoxia and brain anoxia.