Flexible Cystoscopy : procedure, side effects, pain


Cystoscopy procedure is conducted using Flexible Cystoscopy. Visualisation of the bladder through urethra using a cystoscope is known as Cystoscopy. Clear picturization of bladder is possible with cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is the procedure performed by the urologist.

Main objectives of Cystoscopy

  • To determine bladder infection,
  • Bleeding in the bladder,
  • To get biopsy, or sample tissue,
  • Diagnose bladder disorder,
  • To measure bladder capacity,
  • To remove foreign bodies or stones from urinary tract,
  • To find any tumors in the urinary tract,
  • To collect sterile specimen urine, etc…

Indications of Cystoscopy

  • Urinary incontinence, hematuria,
  • Urinary hesitancy, Painful urination,
  • Repeated or recurrent urinary tract infections not respond to treatment,
  • Enlarged prostate, renal calculi,
  • bladder cancer,
  • interstitial cystitis,
  • prolonged pelvic pain,
  • overactive bladder,
  • To obtain biopsy,
  • Presence of foreign body in the urinary tract,

Cystoscopy procedure

The Cystoscopy is performed by the urologist, using Cystoscope. The cystoscopy may be performed under local anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, or general anaesthesia. It is important to note that patient is not taking anticoagulants or stopped a week before Cystoscopy procedure or using alternative medicine.

The cystoscope has half a diameter of urethra and is passed through urethra into the bladder. A camera is attached to cystoscope as the picture can be visualised on the monitor. Sterile liquid is introduced into bladder for clear picturization of bladder wall. Additional instruments are also passed along with cystoscope to get biopsy or to remove foreign body. A catheter is left in the bladder to drain the fluid after the Cystoscopy.

Pain, Hematuria, painful micturition, are the commonest complaints of patients after the Cystoscopic procedure.

Side effects of Cystoscopy

  • Allergic reactions to anaesthesia,
  • Excessive bleeding,
  • Narrowing of urethra due to formation of scar tissue,
  • Damage or tear to the walls of urethra, bladder or ureter.
  • Urinary retention because to altered bladder muscle tone, and swelling,
  • Pain and swelling for hours to days.
  • Are the complications may seen after Cystoscopy.

Preparing the patient for Cystoscopy

  • Check the patient is allergic to any medicines or anesthesia,
  • Find if patient is using any anticoagulants, such a aspirin, if so advice to get alternative drug before a week of Cystoscopic procedure.
  • Check for pregnancy in females.
  • Written consent to be get by the patient or family members before Cystoscopy.

Patient doubts about cystoscopy

  • Patient is advised Not to take any food or drinks orally if general anaesthesia is given.
  • No food restriction, if local anaesthesia is given for Cystoscopy.
  • Void urine, or empty the bladder before Cystoscopy procedure.
  • Don’t get any fear, because cystoscopy is not a life threatening procedure.
  • Be cool and follow the instruction given by the doctor for cystoscopy.

Kwashiorkar : causes, symptoms, treatment


Kwashiorkar is a malnutrition  type with number of nutritional factors. Kwashiorkar is mainly caused due to  insufficient protein intake. Individual consumes good calories but less protein leads to Kwashiorkar. Kwashiorkar commonly occurs in older children and adults. Meaning of term Kwashiorkar is the disease of the displaced child. Kwashiorkar is a protein malnutrition disorder caused because of less protein intake.

Causes of Kwashiorkar

Areas of famine, limited food supply, and low levels of education, which can lead to inadequate knowledge of proper diet commonly causes kwashiorkar.  Fatigue, Irritability, Lethargy, are the early symptoms of Protein energy malnutrition.  Deprivation of protein leads to growth failure, loss of muscle mass, generalized swelling, and weak immunity.Increased dietary needs in the children and less nutrient intake,Lack of balanced diet are the main causes of kwashiorkar.Limited food supply, and low levels of education, which can lead to inadequate knowledge of proper diet CAUSES Kwashiorkar.A large, protuberant belly is common. Skin conditions (such as dermatitis,  changes in pigmentation, thinning of hair,) are seen frequently. shock  and coma precede death.

In the U.S.The incidence of kwashiorkar in children  is extremely low and only rare, isolated cases are seen.

Kwashiorkar is typical  disease seen in developing countries, and is often seen in the midst of drought or political turmoil.

protein intake and improving calorie will correct kwashiorkar, when treatment is  started earlier. However, full height and growth potential will never be achieved in children who have had Kwashiorkar.

Severe kwashiorkar in  children may cause  permanent mental and physical disabilities. The  statistical evidence confirms that malnutrition during early life of children permanently decreases IQ  of kwashiorkar affected child.

Risk factors  of kwashiorkar includes children  living in developing countries, countries in political unrest, and countries affected by frequent natural disasters (such as drought). These conditions such as droughts, tsunami responsible for scarcity of food which leads to malnutrition and causes kwashiorkar.

Symptoms of  kwashiorkar

  • Poor linear growth and reduced  weight gain
  • Lethargy or apathy
  • Irritability
  • Swelling (edema)
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Large belly that stick out (protrudes)
  • Diarrhea
  • Dermatitis
  • Changes in skin pigment ;
  • Hair changes — Change in colour of hair , becomes reddish, thin, or brittle,
  • more  vulnerable to infections due to weak  immune system
  • Shock (in later stage)
  • Coma (in later stage)

Meningitis : signs and symptoms


Meningitis is an inflammation of the layer covers the brain called meningeal layer. Meningitis may be Bacterial meningitis or Viral meningitis. Flu-like symptoms are similar in both types. Meningitis is not very common but is a serious infection of meninges, if not treated may lead  to death. Kernig’s sign is the important sign, in which the person is not able to straight knees in front of the body.

Symptoms of Meningitis in adults

  •   fever with high temperature
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea or vomiting  with headache
  • lack of concentration,
  • Confusion,
  • Sensitivity to light ( bright light),
  • Inability to maintain eye contact (in children)
  • Seizures
  • Sleepiness or difficulty to wake up
  • Stiffness of  neck
  • sensitivity to sound,
  • tiredness,
  • convulsions,
  • muscle pain,
  • Lack of interest in drinking and eating
  • Skin rash,  in case of viral or meningococcal

Kids are prone to get meningitis, the disease easily spreads between people who live in close quarters, teens, college or school students are vulnerable to get infection.

Symptoms of meningitis in babies

  • Fever,
  • cold hands and foot,
  • Vomiting,
  • Refuses food,
  • Feels drowsy,
  • Inactive,
  • Irritable cry
  • Lethargy
  • Irritability
  • Headache
  • Photo phobia
  • Seizures
  • poor feeding
  • A weak suck
  • A high-pitched cry

Identifying the signs and symptoms of meningitis is important to diagnose the disease. The babies may have same signs with some other infections or diseases. The disease can be treated with the help of antibiotics.

Pelvic inflammatory disease : causes, symptoms, prevention, treatment

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease is the disease of upper genital tract of women. Endometritis, salpingitis, pelvic peritonitis, and tubo-ovarian abscess are the main Pelvic inflammatory diseases.

The incidence varies from 1 to 2 % per year among sexually active women. The ready availability of contraception together with permissive sexual attitude has resulted in increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and also causes acute Pelvic inflammatory disease.

Causes of Pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Menstruating teenagers,
  • multiple sexual partners,
  • Absence of contraceptive pills,
  • Previous history of acute pidxxxx,
  • Using intrauterine devices,
  • these factors may cause Pelvic inflammatory disease.


  • sing barrier method of contraception,
  • Oral steroidal contraceptives,
  • Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
  •   Liberal use of contraceptives,
  • Having protective sex,
  • Routine screening of high risk population.


  • Bilateral lower abdominal pain
  • Pelvic pain dull in nature,
  • Fever and headache,
  • Irregular excessive bleeding from genital tract,
  • Purulent and copious discharge,
  •   Nausea and vomiting,
  • Dyspareunia
  • Pain and discomfort in the right hypochondrium.

Treatment of Pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Adequate rest,
  • Analgesics to relieve pain,
  • Antibiotics to treat infection,
  • Doxycycline, erythromycin, and tetracycline are the main antibiotics used to treat Pelvic inflammatory disease.

Male impotence : causes and treatment of Impotence

Male impotence

Inability to have a successful intercourse because of erectile problem is called as Impotence or Male impotence.  most of the men experiences impotence at any part of life. Impotence may be of  short time or long time and effective treatment is needed to treat impotence. All reproductive age group may develop male impotence but the age group above 65 are at risk of developing male impotence.

Impotence can be treatable at any age of an individual. Now a days successful treatment for male impotence is available and the treatment helps  most men with male impotence return to normal sexual activity.

Male impotence Causes

  • Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide have impotence.
  • It is be believed that keeping mobile phones in pocket causes impotence.
  • Diseases like diabetes mellitus, endocrine gland disorder, kidney disease,  etc.
  • Problems in the  structure of reproductive organ or its surrounding tissues may cause impotence.
  • Damage to arteries, smooth muscles and fibrous tissues, surgery or an injury that interfere with nerve impulses transmission or blood flow to the reproductive organ.
  • Psychological upset or emotional stress,  factors like depression, anxiety, grief causes male impotence.
  • As a side effect of medications such as  antihistamines, antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, etc.
  • smoking and obesity which alters blood flow to the  arteries.
  • alcoholism or drug abuse for long time.
  • In men aged  over 65 years, impotence can be caused decreased levels of testosterone hormone, and Hormone replacement therapy is given to treat this male impotence.

Treatment of male impotence

Most of the men won’t get treatment at all. Only ten to twenty percent will get treatment for male impotence.Number of treatment options are available for impotence depending on the cause of male impotence.  Treatment  of male impotence includes reduce stress, counseling and sexual therapy to help solve any sexual problems,  changes in life style, weight control to reduce obesity, alternative  medication to substitute medications which causes impotence, exercises to strengthen pelvic floor, use of an oral medication, a vacuum device or injection or insertion of medicine to sexual organ. Surgical operation is done to correct the deformity of male impotence in some males.

Elderly depression: Symptoms, causes, treatment

Elderly depression

Elderly depression is the depression seen in the old age people. Most of the old age people are at the risk of Elderly depression with number of risk factors. Nearly 10 to 15 % of aged people about 65 years, suffers from elderly depression. Elderly depression is one of the major public health problem. A research study says that older adults with both diabetes and elderly depression are 36 percent to 38 percent risk of dying from any cause.

Most of the elderly depression are not identified easily in nursing homes and general hospitals. A mental health center is the right place to diagnose elderly depression and to provide appropriate mental health care. Hospitalization and different psychotherapies helps in reducing depression and restoration of mental health.

Somatic complaints and cognitive impairments are main symptoms usually associated with elderly depression. Antidepressant medications  are given to treat depression in elders and the dosage fixing and checking for drug tolerance is very important.

Causes of elderly depression

  • Normal aging process,
  • Loss of spouse or loved one,
  • Loneliness,
  • Loss of independence,
  • Feeling of being neglected form young ones,
  • Fear of death or dying,
  • Feelings of purposelessness
  • Chronic medical illnesses,
  • Nutritional deficiency,
  • Prolonged drug therapy,
  • Psychosocial factors, and
  • Mental health problem
  • Loss of mobility due to joint deformity,

Symptoms of Elderly depression

  • Likes to be alone always,
  • Refuses to take food,
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss,
  • Loss of self-worth,
  • Deficit sleep,
  • Sadness,
  • Anxiety and worries
  • Neglects personal care,
  • Loss of memory,
  • Not interested in mingling with family members,
  • Social withdrawal and isolation,
  • Likes to stay in a dark room,
  • Fixation on death and likes to die,
  • Becomes alcoholics and drug abused,

Treatment of  Elderly depression

Antidepressant therapy : Antidepressant medications  lessens the symptoms of elderly depression. Care should be taken to lessen the side effects of drugs which occurs in elders. Treating underlying cause is also needed. Neuroleptic medications are also beneficial in some individuals.

Psychological counseling : is very beneficial in relieving symptoms of depression. Counseling should facilitate to make off loneliness, and should be according to the need and life situation of elder ones.

Music therapy : Listening to musical songs, devotional songs also helps in treating elderly depression. ECT electroconvulsive therapy can be given to some individuals.

Emotional support : The family members should mingle with elders to remove loneliness. Make the elders to play with small kids. Take a regular walk and advice to love the environment. Make them feel some one is caring and love the elders.

Fever: causes, symptoms, measurement, classification & treatment


Fever can be defined as elevation of the body temperature more than usually by about 1-2 ° above the normal 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (F) or 37 degrees Celsius (C). Fever is not a disease and is a symptom and it differs from hyperthermia.

Causes of fever

  • Viral or bacterial Infections : influenza, common cold, Human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, infectious mononucleosis, or gastroenteritis, strep throat, pneumonia, flu and chickenpox, Endocarditis, Encephalitis and Meningitis Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu), Melioidosis, Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and other infections causes fever.
  • Various skin inflammations : boils, pimples, acne, or abscess cause fever.
  • Immunological diseases : lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel diseases also cause fever.
  • Tissue destruction : which can occur in hemolysis, surgery, infarction, crush syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, cerebral hemorrhage, etc cause fever.
  • Drug fever : is directly caused by the drug, e.g. lamictal, progesterone, or chemotherapeutics causing tumor necrosis.
  • as an adverse reaction to drugs, e.g. antibiotics or sulfa drugs.
  • After drug discontinuation, e.g. heroin or fentanyl withdrawal
  • Cancers : most commonly renal cancer and leukemia and lymphomas leads to fever as a first  symptom.
  • Metabolic disorders : gout or porphyria also causes fever.
  • Thromboembolic processes : pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis

Symptoms & Signs of fever

  • Increase in body temperature more than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C) is main sign of fever.
  • presence of chills due to increase in temperature of the body than the external environment is associated with fever.
  • Increase in heart rate and muscle tone is the main symptom of fever.
  • Shivering will be there.
  • In severe cases of fever sometimes there will be presence of delirium and convulsions. Delirium and convulsions  are usually seen in children.
  • When there is rise in body temperature patient feels warm. If fever reduces the person may start to sweat.
  • Severe cases of fever will be associated with some other symptoms at that time the patient has to meet the doctor immediately to treat fever.

Measurement of fever

The fever is measured using an instrument called thermometer. It contains mercury in it. The instrument is placed in different parts of the body and the temperature can be measured. There are varies types of thermometer are there. They are

  • oral thermometer,
  • axillary thermometer and
  • anal thermometer.

If the temperature is taken in the anal region we have to subtract 1 degree from the total temperature because there is always high temperature in there.
If the temperature is measured in the oral region it is the normal there is no need of adding or subtraction.
When we are taking temperature in the axillary route we have to add 1 degree

Classification of fever

fever is classified according to the grade of temperature, they are

  • Low grade fever : approximately varies from 100.4-102.2 degrees of F
  • Moderate fever : approximately varies from 102.2-104.0 degrees of F
  • High grade fever : approximately varies from104.0-107.6 degrees of F
  • Hyperpyrexia : is the maximum level that is more than the 107.6 degrees of F

Advantages of fever

  • According to some studies the fever is essential for the immune bodies to fight against the antigen of bacteria. it speeds up certain immunological reactions.
  • Fever may be sometimes very essential in some extents because it cause unbearable environment for the pathogens.
  • Fever is useful for the immunological bodies, it provides favorable environment for the white blood cells, so they will proliferate easily and can fight against the pathogens. There will be increased activity during fever.

Treatment for fever

  • Fever is not treated essentially because it is a essential reaction of our body. So the fever needs only the symptomatic management. There will be so much of dehydration so the patient should be hydrated properly with intravenous fluids.
  • During fever period the patient may be disoriented, so the patient needs psychological support to recover from fever, nurse should give psychological assurance that fever will be get reduced as soon as possible.
  • The fever patient needs complete bed rest, and room should be well ventilated and provide an environment to sleep well.
  • Feed the fever patient only with small, frequent diet, because there will be alteration in the bowel pattern and indigestion may occur.
  • The immediate cause of the fever should be found and proper steps to be taken to reduce fever.
  • There will be chances of hyponatremia, the patient is given sports’ drinks or intravenous administration of the electrolytes.
  • If the fever is so high, cold bath or tepid sponge bath should be given.
  • If the fever remains same the patient must take antipyretics like paracetamol or ibuprofen, Aspirin etc.
  • The actual reason for fever should be find out and the cause should be treated immediately.

Bloody mucus stool : causes, symptoms, Treatment

Bloody mucus stool

Individuals with lower intestinal and rectal complaints usually passes hard stool looks covered with mucus. Bloody mucus stool may be associated with pain or without pain. Hemorrhoids or  Anal fissures are the common cause of hard stool with blood and mucus.

Painful defecation and passing bright blood may be because of presence of hemorrhoids. Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the main cause of bloody hard mucus stool. Colitis, an inflammation of the lining of the colon leads to stool with mucus and bleeding. Diarrhea or passing loose stools are the main symptoms of Colitis.

Causes of bloody mucus stool

Polyp present in lower rectum  also leads to  passing stool associated with intermittently bleeding.  Causes of bloody mucus stool are:

  • Bloody diarrhea,
  • Bloody mucus in stool,
  • internal bleeding

Some possible causes of bloody diarrhea are  include:-

  • Gastroenteritis
  • Regional enteritis,
  • Colitis,
  • Rectal bleeding,
  • Acute digestive infection
  • Acute food poisoning
  • Shigella food poisoning,
  • salmonella food poisoning,
  • Ulcerative colitis,
  • Crohn’s disease
  • celiac etc

Diagnosis of Bloody mucus stool

History collection reveals presence of any diseases, colour of blood, pain is present or not, etc. And feeling any mass in the rectum also helps in easy diagnosing. After diagnosis, treating the underlying cause, blood and mucus in the stool can be stopped.

Amnesia : Causes, Symptoms, Recovery of Short term memory loss

Amnesia / Short term memory loss

Amnesia is the psychological term used to describe Memory loss.  Amnesia is associated with temporary memory loss or  permanent memory loss. Amnesia affected patients forget what happened in their past life.  Amnesia may come  sudden or slowly, is depends on the etiological factors.

Anterograde amnesia :  The person is incapable of learning new things  and can’t remember the events happened after the attack of Amnesia.

Retrograde Amnesia : Person forgets the past events in their life and fails to recall memories.

Causes of Amnesia

Number of factors are responsible for Amnesia.  Brain damage is the main cause of Amnesia.  Damage caused to memory centers of brain leads to memory loss. Psychological  factors also causes Amnesia is termed as Psychogenic Amnesia.  Degeneration of brain cells in diseases such as Dementia, malnutrition, Drug abuse and other factors leads to brain cell death causes Amnesia.

  • Head injury,
  • Using some drugs,
  • Encephalitis or brain infection,
  • ECT or Electroconvulsive therapy
  • Hysteria or Emotional shock,
  • Cerebral Stroke,
  • General anaesthetics
  • High degree fever,
  • Seizures and convulsions,
  • Consuming alcohol,
  • Traumatic events,
  • Brain surgery
  • Alzheimer’s disease,

Symptoms of Amnesia

Memory loss is the main symptom of Amnesia. Memory loss depends on the severity of causes. Memory loss may be temporary or permanent.  The amnesia affected person may not able to recall what happened in their past or not able to learn the new things from the environment.  The victim may forget ones personal identity such as name, age, residing place etc..

Fails to identify familiar persons or places.  Even the person can’t remember where he is Staying, when does he got an injury,

Confusion in doing daily living activities as the memory power has been reduced because of Amnesia.  After partial recovery the confusion is common.  In this stage the memory is not completely lost but the short term memory is weak and it leads to confusion.

After recovering from Amnesia, affected person can’t remember the events from past Amnesia episode.

Low white blood cell count : causes, symptoms, treatment, precautions

Low white blood cell count

The decrease in the number of white blood cells than normal level is called as low white blood cell count. Leukopenia is the medical term used for low white blood cell count. White blood cells as the components of blood circulates throughout the body and fights against infection, while provides immunity to the body. Children are the more sufferers from this disorder than elder ones.

The white blood cells plays a major role in providing resistance to body. The main component of immune system of human body is white blood cells. When the white blood cells the resistance power of body is reduced and the individual can’t fight against infection. The individual is prone to have recurrent infections which stays for long time. AIDS patients have low white blood cell count and reduced lymphocytes and that is why they will have severe infections.

The inflammatory symptoms such as redness, swelling, pus formation, cough, fever etc develops very poor or may these inflammatory reactions are absent in patients with low white blood cell count as there is no enough white blood cell count to fight against foreign bodies. So seek medical medical help for even small discomfort or infection.

Neutropenia is the term used to indicate decreased number of neutrophils, the component of white blood cell, which leads to low white blood cell count.

The normal range of white blood cell count  in body is 7000 to 11000 cells per cubic mm of blood. The low white blood cell count  less than 5000 cells per Cm can be said as low white blood cell count. The low white blood cell count may vary from medical institutions to institutions. A low white blood cell count in children is not similar to elders and different according to age group. Leukopenia is  also called as low white blood count.

The white blood cells have different component cells which also determines the low white blood cell count. Decrease in any one of component cell also leads to low white blood cell count. The laboratory test determines the number of cells in the given blood sample.

Normal white blood count in adults

  • Total white blood count – 4000 to 11ooo / UL
  • Lymphocytes  – 22 to 44 %
  • Monocytes  – 0 to 8 %
  • Neutrophils  – 40 to 70 %
  • Eosinophils  – 0 to 4 %
  • Basophils  – 0 to 1 %

Causes of low white blood cell count

  • Altered bone marrow function  because of Viral infections,
  • Congenital disorders which diminishes bone marrow function
  • Metastatic cancer and other illness that damages bone marrow
  • Autoimmune disorders which destroys bone marrow cells
  • suppressed immunity due to recurrent infections
  • Some medications also causes low white blood cell count by inhibiting  white blood cells or damaging bone marrow

Specific causes of low white blood cell count

  • Severe allergic reactions
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Chemotherapy for treatment of cancer,
  • Steroids such as prednisone,
  • Use of medications such as  antibiotics, diuretics
  • Immune deficiency disorder
  • HIV infection
  • Destruction of blood cells by spleen
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Infectious diseases
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Kostmann syndrome, a congenital disorder with low neutrophil production
  • Myelokathexis, a congenital in which  neutrophils fails to enter blood stream form production site.
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Parasitic diseases
  • Radiation therapy
  • Vitamin deficiency disorders

Facts about low white blood cell count

The low white blood cell count is  found when the laboratory test is suggested by your doctor and test results gives the exact level of low white blood count level in blood or individuals body. The laboratory results gives clear picture about the percentage of low white blood count and this helps the physician to treat the condition and to take any measures needed. Low white blood count is the clear indicator of decreased immune level in the body and the individual is prone to have recurrent infections. Further diagnostic tests such as x – ray, ultrasound scan, bone marrow aspiration, biopsy  are done to assess the condition of spleen and bone marrow. The low white blood count commonly occurs as a side effect of chemotherapy given to cancer patients.

Precautions to prevent infection

The patients with low white blood count should follow the precautionary measures to prevent infection by wearing face masks, avoiding contact with infected person, beware of contagious or communicable diseases, etc. Use face mask to avoid transmission of infection through nose and upper respiratory tract.  practice hygienic measures to prevent infection and protect health.

When to contact  a doctor  about low white blood count ?

  • An elevated  temperature greater than 100.4°F.  you can check temperature with  the help of thermometer.
  • Sudden and recurrent Chills (rigors) or body shakes,
  • Sudden onset of  pain with unknown cause,

When you experience all these symptoms with known low white blood count, contact doctor immediately.

If you experience symptoms such as

  • Sore throat
  • mouth Sores
  • A white patches in  mouth,
  • tongue lesions
  • Signs of a urinary bladder infection  such as
  • painful urination or burning sensation,
  • red blood cells in urine
  • frequent urination than normal

along with decreased or low white blood count, is better to seek medical help as soon as possible to prevent any complications.

Treatment of low white blood count

Low white blood count is treated by relieving from the actual causes. The careful diagnosis helps in assessment of disease condition and treatment is given as per requirement. The medial research  indicates that some foods and food components helps controlling low white blood cell count.

The doctor will prescribe the medications such as

  • Filgrastim
  • Pegfilgrastim
  • Sargramostim

after each cycle of chemotherapy in order to prevent low white blood cell count  for prolonged time. The prophylactic  antimicrobial medications such as Sulfamethoxazole – trimethoprim,   Fluconazole,  Itraconazole   are prescribed to prevent specific infections which occurs with weaken immune system or low white blood count (associated with chemotherapy).

Some  specific foods such as  garlic, foods high in zinc such as oysters, pot roast, dark meat turkey and pumpkin and squash seeds are helpful in boosting immune system of the body and these foods intake reduces the risks of low white blood count. Fruits and vegetables are good for health and stimulates production of antibodies and gives resistance to body. Multivitamin intake is very beneficial with this disord