Heart burn : causes, symptoms, treatment

Heart burn

Burning sensation in the esophagus, behind the sternum, is called as heart burn. Heart burn is mainly caused due to regurgitation of gastric acid. The painful, burning sensation in the chest, or throat is known as heart burn.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), causes prolonged heart burn for more than two weeks. Lower end of esophagus is not closed in case of GERD. This esophageal opening leads gastric acid to come back into esophagus and causes Heart burn.

Causes of Heart burn

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease,
  • Pregnancy,
  • Some medications,
  • Alcohol,
  • Certain foods

Treatment for Heart Burn

Treatment for Heart burn is very important. If not treated Heart burn causes esophageal damage.

Prescription medications are better for heart burn treatment. Surgery is also preferred in some cases. 

Heart conduction : Cardiac conduction, ECG waves, heart failure

Heart conduction

Heart conduction or Cardiac conduction makes heart to beat. Heart is the blood pumping organ in the body has a regular contraction and relaxation properties. The heart beat helps in pumping blood from heart to different parts of body. Heart beat is due to conduction of heart with the electrical impulses across the heart muscles.  The conduction of heart is the passing of electrical impulses produced at particular part of into different parts of heart and contraction of heart muscles. Conduction of heart is due to electrical activity of heart.

Sinoatrial node situated near the junction of superior vena cava into heart generates electrical impulses. The impulses are transferred to atrioventricular node and then passes to purkinje fibre . The conduction of electric impulses through out the heart muscles leads to heart beat.

SA node

Sinoatrial node or SA node is a small point like structure in the cardiac muscle or heart muscle, situated near the junction of superior vena cava into heart.

AV node

Atrioventricular node or AV node is situated in the wall of right atrium. This AV node or Atrioventricular node receives the impulses from Sinoatrial node or SA node and transmits to Bundle of his and to purkinje fiber.

Bundle of His

A specialized structure passes through the ventricular septum and passes electrical impulses into purkinje fibre a small branches and thereby passes impulses to ventricular region and posterior part of heart.

Purkinje Fibre

A small branch like structures present in the walls of ventricles supplies electrical impulses to ventricle region of heart or myocardium.

The conduction system of heart and electrical impulses are measured using ECG or Electrocardiogram. ECG shows different wave movements such as P wave, Q wave, R S T wave. The variation of ECG waves from normal ECG waves indicates imbalance in conducting system of heart.

Failure in the conducting system of heart or Heart conduction leads to improper functioning of heart and may lead to Heart failure.

Aorta surgery: purpose, procedure and care to be taken

Aorta is the largest artery in the human body which carries away the oxygenated blood from heart to different parts of the body. An aorta  surgery is done to correct any blockage in the aorta, such as arterial occlusive disease. aorta  surgery is done under general anesthesia, three to four hours.

Purpose of Aorta surgery

  • Restore blood flow to legs
  • Restore blood flow to kidneys and intestines affected by aortic disease.
  •   To prevent a rupture of the aneurysm in case of aneurysm,
  • To treat the aortic disorders which can’t be treated with Medicine.
  • To prevent complications of  arterial disorder.

Aortic Surgical  procedures

1. Removing the plaque (endarterectomy)
2. Removing a blood clot from an artery or bypass graft (thrombectomy or embolectomy)
3. Placing a bypass around a blockage in the aorta or an artery.

A aortic graft is used to bypass the blockage the aorta or replace the aneurysm. The graft is made  of a man-made synthetic  material. Synthetic grafts may be infected but are not rejected by the body .

Like other surgeries aortic surgery also has risk during the operative procedure. Risks differ from person to person and extent of artery disease. if a specialist performs the cardiac operation the risks may be less.  In some cases

  • Bleeding,
  • Blockage of the bypass graft,
  • Infection, and heart problems,
  • kidney failure and bowel obstruction

are seen after surgery. A special care during surgery prevents these complications.

some times aortic  surgery is postponed, if the patient reports fever, sore throat, cold or any infections. The patient undergoes aorta surgery should stop any anticoagulant drugs one week prior to operation. Surgery is also postponed on the basis of priority and emergency of condition.

Aortic resection is the procedure of removal of some portion of diseased aorta.

Heart valve failure : Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Heart valve failure

Human heart has mainly three types of valve. Inability of heart to beat i.e. to pump the blood is called as heart failure. The failure of heart conduction leads to heart failure. Number of factors causes Heart failure.

Heart failure is also called as Congestive heart failure. Both sides of the heart or only side fails to pump blood and leads to heart failure.

Inability of heart to pump blood leads to

  • Pooling of blood into lungs,
  • Pooling of blood in peripheries, such as foot, ankles, in the form of swelling called as Edema.
  • Apnea or shortness of breath are observed with heart failure.

Causes of Heart failure

  • Coronary artery diseases,
  • untreated high blood pressure,
  • excess accumulation of lipids in the coronary arteries,
  • Severe emotional stress, and
  • Diabetes,  are the main causes of heart failure.

Symptoms of heart failure

  • Shortness of breath, dyspnea,
  • peripheral edema, like ankle edema,
  • Dizziness,
  • nausea, vomiting, tiredness, etc..

Treatment of heart failure

Treatment of heart failure includes, medications, bed rest, restriction of sodium, and Heart transplantation is also used a treatment.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis : causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Inflammation of Lung, due to hypersensitivity to dust or pollen inhalation is called as Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. Hypersensitivity reaction is because of body’s resistance fights against foreign body such as pollen, dust, fungus etc. Sudden hypersensitivity within 12 to 18 hours of exposure to dust or foreign material is called Acute hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis occurs commonly at work place due to exposure to dust, fungus, or molds. Farmers are at high risk of getting hypersensitivity due to exposure to dust and pollens. Exposure to agricultural dust or other occupational dust leads to Lung diseases. If not treated, hypersensitivity Pneumonia turns to Chronic lung disease.

Exposure to bird dust, occupational dust such as cement factory workers, Inhaling fungus in the environment, air conditioner in the home etc causes Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Fever,
  • chills,
  • cough, ( dry cough )
  • Throat irritation,
  • Chest tightness,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • loss of appetite,
  • Weight loss,
  • Discomfort in the respiratory tract,

Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Chest X – Ray is the diagnostic test performed to identify hypersensitivity. Diffused small nodules are found in the X- Ray sheet.
  • Pulmonary function tests,
  • Complete blood count,
  • Bronchoscopy,
  • Biopsy may be done,
  • Hgh resolution CT – Scan shows the affected area of lung.

Who may get Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Farmers works with dust,
Pigeon breeders, from feather dust,
Sauna takers,
Mushroom growers, get from moldy compost, etc

Treatment of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Identifying the allergic materials and avoiding them is better way of treating this. Using protective masks at work place is also advised.

Infant and newborn Child constipation causes, symptoms, treatment

Infant constipation

Difficulty in passing stools or passing hard stool infrequently is known as Constipation. When an infant failed bowel movement for more than three days is said to be Infant constipation. Infants passes nearly three to four stools a day. Constipation is not the main complaint with mother milk fed infants. Formula fed infants usually passes stool not frequently. Infant constipation is common with formula fed newborn. Toddlers normally passes stool two times a day.

Causes of infant constipation

Normally the colon absorbs the water from the digested food and bowel movement helps in expelling the fecal matter or waste from the body. The excess absorption of water from colon, reduced bowel movement, Less fibre food are responsible for constipation. The less water content in formula or mother’s milk, Infrequent feeding of newborn or infant reduces bowel movement and stool becomes sticky and hard. This is the mechanism of constipation in newborn or infant.

When bowel movement decreases, fecal material remains in colon for long time, and water removal process of colon increases and excess water is observed. The stool mass becomes excessively dry and hard and leads to constipation in newborn, infant and children.

Constipation in newborns occurs with high nutrient milk feeding to baby,

Formula fed infant bowel movement becomes low and leads to bowel constipation.

Infants or newborns starts weaning food may get bowel constipation.

Transition from weaning food to table food leads to infant constipation.

Newborn constipation : Constipation seen in newborns is called as newborn constipation. Usually newborns passes feces within 24 hours of birth.

Naturally sluggish colon with decreased motility.

Insufficient food to stimulate normal propulsive activity of colon, is what happens with newborn and infants. Toddlers who refuses to take food becomes constipated because of this cause.

Consuming low residue Diet, Mother milk fed to newborn is a low residue diet leads to newborn constipation.

Starting weaning or providing solids to infant leads to infant constipation because of low bowel movement as is not adopted to pass solid food. This infant constipation is relieved later.

Neurological damage : Damage of nerve which supplies colon makes rectum and anus not to relax and evacuation is not possible. The result is newborn or infant constipation.

Anatomical obstruction in the lower digestive tract or bowel abnormality also leads to bowel constipation.

Presence of tumor in the bowel or lower intestinal tract.

Constipation symptoms

Identifying Child constipation is very difficult as the child doesn’t express it is constipated. Child constipated for more than three days may complaint lower abdominal pain and irritable bowel. Infants and grown children complaints difficulty in passing stool and cries. Newborns can’t express they are constipated and the severe constipated newborn cries and becomes very irritable. Toddler constipation can be identified easily by parents as the constipated toddler can explain the symptoms.

Treatment for constipation

Diet modifications and medications are the main treatment methods of newborn constipation.

  • Rectal examination is indicated for constipated newborns.
  • Laxatives can be used with feeding of infant
  • Modification of formula feeding
  • Weaning shouldn’t include much solids, after weaning give plenty of fluids,
  • Treat underlying cause of constipation in case of child constipation.

When home remedies of constipation fails in relieving constipation, medications are preferred.

  • Laxatives are the medical remedy for constipation in toddlers and children.
  • Corn syrup in the formula is given to infants and newborns.
  • Fruit juices are highly beneficial in relieving constipation.

Fiber rich food is given for grown children or toddler to relieve constipation and is not possible with newborns.

Lactulose is the non-absorb-able sugar product that stimulates colon bacteria and produces water into the fecal mass by inflow. Is the common treatment for newborn, infant toddler and child constipation, suggested by pediatric gastroenterologists for constipation remedy. Diarrhea may be seen as side effect with Lactulose.

Glycerin suppositories are used as remedy for cor constipation when all efforts fails. The suppositories softens hard stool and favours easy defecation. Glycerin attracts small amount of water into stool and relieves constipation. Insertion of suppositories to rectum also stimulates defecation and helps in relieving constipation.

Constipation: remedies, cure tips

  • Constipation can be cured with laxatives.
  • Difficuty in passing hard stool is termed as constipation.
  • due to hard stool, infrequent defecation.
  • If fecal matter from body is not removed through proper defecation, fecal material will create discomfort  and long term fecal hold leads to toxicity.

Tips to relieve from constipation

  • drink nearly three liters of water every day.
  • take fibre rich diet: vegetables and fruits.
  • drink a cup of warm water before breakfast, it stimulates bowel movement.
  • regular exercises will promote normal bowel movement.
  • avoid sugar and white flour in food, these foods tend to cause constipation.
  • if you are lean or have less fat use appropriate amount of oil in food.
  • avoid curried foods, snacks, and junk foods.
  • if the child has constipation, avoid milk and give fruit juices.
  • when all these   fail use laxatives with the guidance of doctor.

Heart disease symptoms : Heart attack causes

Heart disease

Heart is the cone shaped blood pumping organ situated between lungs in chest cavity and has a very very vital function in the body. The diseases or abnormalities are called as heart disease and number of symptoms or clinical features which indicates heart disease are called as heart disease symptoms or heart symptoms.

Impaired heart structure and function is called as heart disease and the heart symptoms are very clear and can be identified by the heart disease individual and a doctor.

Causes of heart disease symptoms

Diseases such as hypertensive diseases, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and other disorders causes heart disease symptoms. The heart is the main organ of circulatory system and  heart disease directly affects the circulatory changes of body.

Coronary artery disease, the condition in which narrowing of the heart wall supplying blood vessels with accumulation of  fats and plaque is the main cause of heart disease symptoms.

Heart disease is the number one cause of death in united states, and heart disease symptoms should be known to heart patients to prevent complications. Most of heart disease develops gradually and heart attack is an acute heart disease, if not treated leads to death of affected individual.

Heart disease symptoms

Common heart disease symptoms include chest discomfort, Chest pain and left shoulder pain, shortness of breath, nausea, coldness, vomiting, unexplained severe headache, sweating, anxiety, heart burning sensation, swelling of ankles, etc

Heart symptoms vary according to heart disease. Heart symptom or heart disease symptoms in case of heart attack  are* feeling of nausea,

  • dizziness,  headache or pain the jaw,
  • pain the shoulder or in the left arm,
  • chest pain of  squeezing nature

Most of heart attack occurs without heart symptoms, and these heart attack should need kind attention to save the life.

Heart disease  symptoms in the case of arrhythmia are, the person realizes that his or her heart is occasionally missing a beat in between. Palpitation is also one of heart symptoms. No personal decision should be made about heart disease symptoms and one should get checked for heart symptoms by the cardiologist or doctor.

Arrhythmia is the clear heart symptom which indicates inability of heart to pump enough blood because of heart disease such as heart valve problems, which may  be indication of damage to heart valve.

Chest pain with radiating nature, increased with work is the clear heart disease symptom which indicates heart is in problem. The common cause of chest pain are atherosclerosis, moving clots in coronary arteries, etc.

Fatigue and swelling of the extremities are heart disease symptoms in case of heart failure. Feeling of lungs filled with fluid by the patient and difficulty breathing are heart symptoms of disease.

The signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation  are fainting, feeling of heaviness inside the chest, dizziness and  heart palpitations are heart disease symptoms.

Hair vitamins : Sources of Hair vitamins, Faster hair growth

Healthy Hair

Healthy hairs provide pleasure to the person and also pleasing to the person and set him mentally as well as physically comfortable. For the growth of the hairs stronger and longer, hair vitamins are the important aspects. There should be a well balanced hair vitamins, if there increase in the amount of hair vitamins or decrease in the amount may also leads to hair loss.

Healthy hair is depending upon the good nutrition, how the good nutrition is essential to growth of our body. Some vitamins play vital role the good hairs. It is important that certain metabolic requirements of the cells should be met for adequate growth of the hair. That means certain vitamins and minerals should be present in the adequate amount otherwise it may leads to faulty or nonexistent hair growth.

Because of the hurry life now a day we are not giving that much importance for our food. Extreme work schedule will pushing the peoples to develop poor eating habits. Along with this stress, exposure to sun, toxic environment, smoking and alcohol consumption in excess amount as well as lack of sleep leads to poor absorption of the hair vitamins and cause loss of the hair.

Taking proper amount of vitamins and minerals plays a major role in keeping our hair healthy and beautiful. So our goal is take the hair vitamins adequately. Heavy intake of certain vitamin supplements in some cases will resulted in stimulating hair growth. Deficiency of vitamin B6 will lead to often lose the hair because of hair vitamin deficiency.

Condition of our hair reflects the condition of our body. If our body is healthy and well nourished, hair will be looking good and shining glory. Nutritional deficiencies cause to hair becomes brittle and thin.

Hair Vitamins

Vitamin A 

 It plays a major role in the growth of the hair and good healthy hair. Dose of hair vitamins A is 5,000 IU. Foods rich in vitamin A: cheese, eggs, carrots, apricots, meat, milk, broccoli, peaches and fish liver oil. These foods provides hair vitamins.

Large doses that is more than 25,000 IU of hair vitamins may also leads to loss of hair when the taking vitamin A is stopped the problem will be reversed.

Essential fatty acids also should be taken to improve the texture of the hair and also they prevent dry, brittle hair. Dosage of this hair vitamin is : 500 mg daily. Contraindication of this hair vitamins is, shouldn’t  be given to child

Vitamin B

 Vitamin B is important for the health and for the growth of the hair. Foods rich in B vitamin are beans, peas, cauliflower, nuts and eggs, yeast, soy beans. This vitamin B complex with the some following B-vitamins will results in best results. So vitamin b are best hair vitamins.

Vitamin B3 also known as niacin, and Dose of vitamin b3 is : 50 mg 3 times daily. Food rich in vitamin B3: Brewer’s yeast, chicken, fish, wheat germ, turkey and meat.

Vitamin B5 also known as pantothenic acid is one of the hair vitamin. Dose: 100 mg 3 times daily. Food sources of vitamin b5 are  Brewer’s yeast, organ meats and egg yolks, whole grain cereals.

Vitamin B6 also known as pyridoxine is also a hair vitamin.
Dose: 50 mg 3 times daily. Food sources are Liver, whole grain cereals, vegetables, organ meats and egg yolk, brewer’s yeast. Vitamin b6 is a good hair vitamins.

Vitamin B12, Dose: 2 mg daily and Food sources are : Chicken, fish, eggs and milk.

Vitamin C

 Vitamin C will improve scalp circulation. It maintain capillaries which carry blood to the follicles. Foods rich in vitamin c are antioxidants like citrus fruits, kiwi, cantaloupe, tomatoes, potatoes, green leafy vegetables, pineapple and strawberries. Dosage is  3,000-10,000 mg daily.

Vitamin E

This hair vitamins also enhances the scalp circulation. Foods rich in vitamin E are vegetable oils, soybeans, raw seeds and nuts, Cold-pressed vegetable oils, and leafy green vegetables, wheat germ oil, dried beans. Daily dosage is  Up to 400 IU.

Precautions: the patients taking antihypertensive or anticoagulants should have to consult the doctors before taking the Vitamin E supplements.


 It is very important for the growth of the hair and healthy hair. It prevents hair loss. biotin is commonly prescribed hair vitamins for hair loss treatment. Food sources of biotin are whole grains, green peas, oats, soybeans, rice and milk, egg yolks, Brewer’s yeast, bulgur, lentils, sunflower seeds, brown rice, and walnuts. Daily dose is  50 mg 3 times daily.


 It is very essential hair vitamins for the growth of the hair. Daily dosage of this hair vitamins is 100 mg twice daily. Above mentioned are the main hair vitamins, essential for healthy hair growth and to prevent hair fall.

Beriberi : Causes, Symptoms, types, treatment of beriberi


Beriberi is the vitamin B1 deficiency disorder specially thiamine deficiency, resulting in neurological disorders. Nervous system, cardiovascular system, and muscular systems are affected by beriberi or Vitamin b1 deficiency. Meaning of beriberi is  “I can’t, I can’t “. Beriberi is common in Southeast Asia where people uses rice with poor thiamine as staple food.

Types of Beriberi

Two main types of Beriberi which are as follows,

Wet Beriberi

Cardiovascular system is affected with wet beriberi

Dry Beriberi

Nervous system is affected with dry beriberi.

Causes of beriberi

Vitamin B1 – thiamine deficiency is the main cause of Beriberi.

Beriberi is common in patients with  alcohol abuse, because excess alcohol consumption leads to poor  nutrition, and absorption of vitamins and minerals  is very less.

People who consumes diet with less with thiamine, i.e. Polished white rice will get beriberi.

Beriberi is common in people who eat white polished rice ( less in thiamine) as staple food.

Beriberi may also seen in patients after Gastric surgeries.

Genetic beriberi is rarely caused and is due to family history or genetic inheritance. Patients with genetic beriberi, intestines fails to absorb thiamine or vitamin B from foods ingested. The symptoms of Genetic beriberi are usually seen during adult age.

Babies who receive less thiamine containing milk from mother can also affected by Beriberi. Formula feeding infants with inadequate thiamine also can suffer from Beriberi.

Dialysis to treat other diseases, and Diuretics can increase the risk of Beriberi.

Symptoms of Beriberi

  • Weight loss,
  • Loss of appetite,
  • Emotional disturbances
  • General weakness,
  • vomiting,

Dry beriberi Symptoms

  • Nerve damage,
  • Impaired sensory perception,
  • Partial paralysis,
  • Peripheral neural damage,
  • Loss of sensation in feet and legs,
  • Mental confusion,
  • loss of muscle co-ordination,
  • Pain in the limbs,
  • Tingling,
  • Difficulty in walking,
  • Increased amount of lactic acid and pyruvic acid in blood,

Wet beriberi Symptoms

  • Cardiovascular abnormalities
  • Cardiac failure
  • Congestive cardiac failure, are main symptoms of wet beriberi.
  • Weakening of capillary walls
  • Increased heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • Awakening at night with sweating
  • Cardiac symptoms becomes fatal, if not treated
  • If not treated beriberi may lead to death.

Treatment of Beriberi

Thiamine Hydrochloride in tablet form or in injection form is given to treat Beriberi. Even with an hour of treatment with thiamine hydrochloride itself the patient recovers from Beriberi symptoms.

  • High doses of thiamine injection,
  • Unrefined cereals,
  • Fresh foods such as  meat, legumes,
  • Green vegetables, fruits , and milk are provided to treat beriberi with rich thiamine supplement.