Abrasions : skin damage , treatment , prevention


Abrasions are the damaged caused to the superficial layer of the skin. Abrasions commonly the sports injuries, occur due to fall on hard surface.  Because of fall the friction occurs between the skin and hard surface.  So the athletes are at high risk of falls and they will get abrasions.  Abrasion removes the superficial layer of the skin called epidermis, which provides elasticity to the skin.

An abrasions may cause very less bleeding or causes no bleeding.   Abrasion may be caused falls while bicycle riding even bike riding falls.

Treatment of Abrasions

Cleaning the wound with water and soap is the first step of treating abrasions.  Mild antibiotics can be applied on the abrasions.  The abrasion is cleaned with hydrogen peroxide, and covered with antibiotic ointment.  A dry bandage is applied with comfortable tightness.

Abrasion treating machine is also used to treat abrasions.  If abrasions are severe meet the physician to get treatment.

Prevention of abrasions

Wearing protective pads to the proned areas such as knee, elbow, helps in preventing abrasions in the athletes. Care to be taken to avoid falls, and first aid kit is beneficial to treat abrasions

Tetanus: infection, shot, dosage

Tetanus shots are given to prevent Tetanus . Tetanus shot is a vaccine of tetanus toxoid given against Tetanus disease. First tetanus toxoid vaccine was introduced in the year 1924. tetanus is also called as Lock jaw and is an acute infectious disease caused by clostridium tetani. The toxin is released after infection and affects the central nervous system. The body muscles becomes rigid specially neck and jaw movement becomes very rigid.

Clostridium tetani is found in soil and manure and also on human skin surface. The tetanus infection follows after an injury or wound to body part. The main way for Clostridium tetani to enter human blood stream is through wounds or injuries.

Tetanus infection occurs through

  • Any injuries causes bleeding from skin
  • Animal or human bites.
  • Dental infections and Ear infections
  • Pregnancy or abortion

Tetanus shots / tetanus vaccination

  • Soon after a injury, if you go for health care provider or doctor, he wash the wound will give Tetanus shots. Tetanus shots is a vaccination containing Tetanus toxoid, an antigenic material produces antibodies in the body against Clostridium tetani. These antibodies prevents tetanus infection in the body.
  • Usually tetanus shot, or vaccine is given in the childhood to prevent tetanus infection by improving the immunity of child against Tetanus or Clostridium tetani. Booster dose of tetanus shot should be taken to prevent tetanus infection. Now a days the disease has been markedly reduced because of proper immunization.
  • Tetanus shots are given to pregnant mothers in the second or third trimester to prevent incidence of tetanus in neonates. For children tetanus shots is given at the age of 10 years and after 6 months booster dose is given.

Vaccinations : immunity, vaccine types and merits

FDA also approves shingles vaccine. It is also known as Zostavax. Vaccination is the procedure of producing immunity to a particular disease by administrating antigenic material. Vaccination prevents the disease or an infection caused by the pathogens. vaccination is an effective method of producing immunity, preventing disease because of it’s power to produce immunity.

The vaccines administrated may be live (they can’t produce active immunization) obtained from pathogens such as bacteria or virus. Killed vaccines or inactivated antigenic material from the pathogens, may be purified material such as protein.

Before 200 BC itself inoculation against smallpox, the killing disease was introduced.

The word vaccination was first introduced in 1976 by Edward Jenner.

How the vaccinations prevent disease ?

All vaccines introduces antigenic material into the immune system of the body and stimulates antigen antibody reaction. As the antigenic material is unable to produce active infection, the antibodies are developed strongly against the particular antigenic material. The developed antibodies fight against the particular antigen in future and prevent infection and particular disease.

Types of Vaccinations

Inactivated vaccine

Consists of inactivated virus, which has been cultivated in the culture media and killed using formaldehyde or Heat. These viruses loses the capacity to replicate but can stimulate antibodies, because of it’s antigenic nature. The effective inactivation of virus doesn’t cause any infection, but weak inactivation can establish an infection in the body. Booster dose of vaccine is necessary, because the inactivated virus loses it’s antigenic property later.

Attenuated Vaccine

Very low virulence virus particles are included in attenuated vaccine. They reproduce very slowly, so they will produce their antigenic properties, and less often need of a booster dose.

Subunit Vaccine

A subunit of a pathogen is introduced as a vaccine and is capable of producing immunity by stimulating antibodies. The specific protein is extracted from the vaccine and is administered as Vaccine.

Pregnancy symptoms : early signs and symptoms of pregnancy

Early pregnancy symptoms

Pregnancy symptoms are the experiences felt by the mother during gestational period. The pregnancy symptoms varies from one woman to another. Pregnancy symptoms varies in their frequency, intensity and duration. The pregnancy symptoms can appear same as that of pre-menstrual discomforts.The woman experiences variety of physical mental changes in the period of pregnancy. These all pregnancy symptoms are listed below. These are considered as typical early pregnancy symptoms, these may in there duration of appearance. Some of the pregnancy symptoms are subtle, they are not obvious.

The pregnancy symptoms may confused with other pathological causes. Pregnancy symptoms may occur within a week of conception but these may occur after few weeks in other woman. For confirmation of Pregnancy symptoms the woman must undergo pregnancy test. Following are the important Pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms no – 1

Amenorrhea : There is missing in monthly regular menstrual cycle is called amenorrhea. This is most important symptom of pregnancy, if there is absence of two continues cycle indicate conception and is the early and vital sign of pregnancy. But sometimes it may confuse with other causes, so the woman must undergo pregnancy test immediately.

Some woman might not have missing of cycle but experience lighter period when compared with the previous cycles is also a pregnancy symptoms. Sometimes there are chances of delay in the duration of the menstruation. And the next period should miss if the woman is under pregnancy. Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms : These amenorrhea symptoms often confused with hormonal problems, fatigue, Excessive weight gain/loss, breast-feeding, ceasing to take the birth control pill, tension, stress. So the woman must undergo pregnancy test as soon as possible.

Pregnancy symptoms – 2

Increase in the breast size :There will be chances of Breast Tenderness, that means swollen, and enlarge in size of the breast and breast sore will be present. These changes might happen because of breast undergo some hormonal changes for the purpose of producing milk. This is one of the pregnancy symptoms.

When women becomes pregnant, mother’s body begins preparing  breasts for producing milk and breastfeeding. Hormones start increasing. In addition to breast tenderness and swelling,   nipples may feel sore or extra sensitive. Some women notice their nipples darken in color.

There will be development of primary and secondary areola leads to darkening of the nipples, and the breast will becomes more sensitive. This is the most important early symptom of pregnancy. Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms : Enlargement of the breast is often confused side effects of birth control pills, hormonal imbalance, impending menstruation also will cause the breast tenderness.

Pregnancy symptoms – 3

Fatigue : Because of the growth of the fetus there is increase in the fatigue and exhaustion. The mother will start to go to bed as sooner and she will be tired of doing a small works, she will feel harder to get from bed in the morning.

Mother has to put more efforts for exercises, simple activities may feel wiped and the mother feels light headed.

Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms: Fatigue also associated with exhaustion, stress, common cold or flu, depression and other illness also causes feeling of tiredness or fatigued.

Pregnancy symptoms – 4

Nausea/Morning sickness : There is a presence of sensation of vomiting, this is a signs of queasiness, the mother will have nausea in the morning when she is going to have coffee or if she is going to take breakfast on an empty stomach. During this period mother will suffer from this problem very adversely. Morning sickness is also important among Pregnancy symptoms.
This can be reduced by eating smaller, and by taking more frequent snack size meals. And also it can be helped with saltine crackers and milk. This will appear after a period of month and it will persist till the body get adjust to the changes.

Differential diagnosis  of Pregnancy symptoms: This is also associated with food poisoning, other stomach disorders and stress can also cause mother to feel queasy.

Pregnancy symptoms – 5

Frequent Urination : It is one of the early pregnancy symptom mother will frequently void the urine. This pregnancy symptom is due to increase in the size of the uterus puts more pressure on the bladder causing frequent urination.

This also due increase in volume of body fluids and there is increase in process of kidneys and bladder. This pregnancy symptom will persist till nine months.

Other causes: Diabetes, urinary tract infection, increasing liquid intake and taking excessive diuretics.

Pregnancy symptom – 6

Heartburn and/or Constipation : Due to presence of the oestrogen hormone there is relaxation of the cardiac sphincter so it leads to gastroesophageal reflux. The gastric content will reflux in to the oesophagus and causing burning sensation. And also it caused due to increase in the size of the uterus will pushing the other organs towards the stomach. Heartburn is the minor Pregnancy symptoms.

Increased level of hormones may slow down the digestion, leading to heartburn. The bowel function will allow the body to absorb the minerals and vitamins, nutrients as much as possible from the foods.
Treatment includes drinking plenty of water and eats fruits, small frequent foods and vegetables, soda crackers and sparkling water will help to reduce the burning. And it also can be reduced by taking some quality vitamin formulas contain digestive enzymes will help with digestion. In severe cases mother should have to take some antacids prescribed by the doctor.

Pregnancy symptoms  – 7

Higher body temperature : There will be increase in the temperature of the body higher than the normal and it will persist for two weeks. But if the fever is persists for prolonged period mother may have to seek the doctor. Higher body temperature is the minor Pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptom – 8

Lack of concentration : Because of the fatigue, morning sickness the mother will feel mentally fuzzy, and even when the mother took the rest she may experience an inability to concentrate and she will have forgetfulness. Lack of concentration is also a minor pregnancy sign.

Pregnancy symptom – 9

Mood Swings : When there is fluctuation in the hormonal level leads to variation in the mood during pregnancy. The mother will feel mixed emotions, excitement and depression, and as well as the joy and sorrow, tears and laughter. She will be confused and need support and understanding. This early pregnancy symptoms may decrease in the second trimester. It can also be reduced by get plenty of sleep, by taking prenatal vitamins, eat at right time and by some moderate exercises. Mood swings may not appear in all mothers with pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms – 10

Bloating and Weight Gain : In pregnancy there will be gradual increase in the weight of the mother, its due to increase in the size of the fetus. And also it is due to increase in the extracellular fluid volume, growth of the uterus. Weight Gain is the later pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms no – 11

Low Back Pain :Due to alteration in the posture and increase in the weight gain as well as difference in the body alignment leads to prolonged back pain. The pain is in the torso which pulls on mothers back.

These are the main symptoms of pregnancy.

Rabies vaccine: vaccination grades, dosage and side effects

Rabies can be defined as  ‘ A fatal viral infection, is usually acquired through the bite of an infected animal to the human beings’. Nearly all morbidity in human beings worldwide is due to the bite of a rabid dog, and rabies infection. The rabies occurs from the rabdo virus. Rabies vaccine has reduced the incidence of rabies morbidity.

Rabies vaccination is the active immunizing agent  used to prevent the infection caused by the rabies virus that carried by the animals. It is a killed rabies virus vaccine.

There are two types of rabies vaccinations

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis : this type of rabies vaccination is done for the persons who are at high risk of getting infected. Animal handlers, veterinarians, travelers, the persons who are in contact with the wild animals are likely to get infected.
  2. Post-exposure prophylaxis : this type of rabies vaccination prophylaxis is done to the patients who are exposed to the animal bites, indicated by bite, scratch, or lick.

Facts related to rabies vaccine

  • The rabies  spreads through the pet animals as well as wild animals; dogs, bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, horses, swine, foxes and cattle are the usual ones. So it is better to immunize the domestic animals with rabies vaccine.
  • A person who is bitten by the infected animal  should receive the rabies vaccine after the animal bite. If patient is known to be hypersensitive to the rabies vaccine, then the rabies vaccine should be administered under supervision with all the immediate measures for managing anaphylactic shock.
  • Prophylactic use of the rabies vaccination should be avoided in children, adolescents, antenatal mother & adults on treatment for any acute illness.
  • Pre exposure rabies vaccine is to be avoided if person is known to be allergic to rabies vaccine.
  • The further rabies vaccination or  immunization is avoided in persons who had complications on rabies vaccine administration.

The immunization schedule is classified under some grades as

  • Grade I : when the person is in contact with the animal but not in contact with the saliva or blood. For this kind scheduled rabies vaccination is not needed.
  • Grade II : If the animal has licked or if any other kind of expose to the saliva and superficial, non- bleeding scratches made by the animal, immediate rabies vaccine immunization should be given according to the schedule B.
  • Grade III :  includes all bites, bleeding scratches, all wounds on the head, neck, scapular region, extremities. Direct contact of animal saliva with mucous membrane of patient, immediate concomitant prophylaxis with rabies vaccine is needed according to schedule C.

The classification according to severity of expose to animal

Schedule A: In this type one injection of rabies vaccine of Prophylactic immunization prior to exposure is given. One injection is given IM on days 0,7,28 and 365.

Schedule B: Immunization vaccine  should be given after exposure but it is of somewhat long  coarse. One injection of  rabies vaccine IM is given on days 0,3,7,14,30 & if necessary it is given on day 90.

Special precautions for rabies vaccine administration

The person who has received rabies vaccine of doubtful potency and who has discontinued the course of injections has to receive the entire course of rabies vaccine according to exposure.  In case the person is re-exposed after 5 yrs., entire course should be completed according to grade of exposure.

Dosage and administration of rabies vaccine

There is no difference in the dose for children & adults. 1ml of rabies vaccine is given by intramuscular injection in the deltoid muscle (arm) or in the thigh in small children. The prescribed schedule should be followed strictly  even if some time has passed since the exposure.

Rabies vaccine side effects

  • This rabies vaccine doesn’t cause that much vital side effects, but it will cause generally mild and non serious side effects.
  • There will be a mild pain, redness and swelling may occur at injection spot as a side effect.
  • Rarely arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders or lymph node swelling may occur as  rabies vaccine side effects.
  • Sometimes anaphylactic shock may occur.

Contraindications for rabies vaccine

If there are hypersensitivity reactions to the vaccine or acute febrile illness the rabies vaccine is contraindicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis. In case of pregnancy vaccine should be given if the level of risk is high for pre-exposure prophylaxis.