Yeast infections: causes and treatment

Yeast infections

Yeast Infections

Yeast infections usually occurs, at the water retaining parts of the body. Yeast infections generally occur in areas like, mouth, underarms, hand and feet etc, The water retaining environment is the main cause of yeast infection. Everybody comes in contact with yeast, but some have resistance, and some persons who have less immunity will be infected with yeast. The moist, warm environment encourages yeast growth and causes yeast infection.

Yeast infections most commonly occurs in genital area. Because the area provides good environment for yeast growth. The moist warm area, at the genital area is more prone to yeast infection. By maintaining hygiene at this area, one can prevent yeast infection. Yeast infections can also occur at axilla, and between thighs.

Oral yeast infections commonly occurs in children. Infants who are bottle feeding can get oral yeast infection. Because the moist area around the bottle enhances yeast growth. The oral yeast infections are called as oral thrush.

Yeast infections also occur under the nails, if nails are kept moist and dirt.

Causes of Yeast Infection

  •   Unhygienic genital areas,
  •   Poor hygiene at water retaining areas such as hands, feet.
  •   Immune suppressing medications such as steroids,
  •   Using an uncleaned bottle causes yeast infection in children.
  •   Decreased resistance to infections,
  •   weak immunity,patients such as AIDS,

Treatment of Yeast Infections

  •   MICONAZOLE, CLOTRIMAZOLE, are the important medications used.
  •   Natural treatment is also available.

Bedsore Ulcer Causes , Bedsore Stage , Bedsore Treatment

Decubitus Ulcer

Bedsores are the skin lesions caused due to prolonged pressure resulting in the death of skin and dermatic tissue. Bedsores are also called as Pressure sores or pressure ulcers. Main cause of pressure sore is sitting or lying in the same position for prolonged time.

Mechanism Of Bedsore Development

When an individual stays on single position for prolonged time, the pressure is exerted between the body skin and the other surface such as Bed. The pressure cut offs the blood supply to particular area and leads to tissue damage of skin and underlying tissue, resulting in Bedsores, or pressure ulcer.

Bedsores are caused by number of factors such as prolonged pressure, friction, humidity in the skin, old age, wrinkled bed and friction, increased temperature, and bony prominences with less adipose tissue are at risk. Bedsores worsens the life of individuals if proper care is not taken.

Due to illness, when a single position is maintained for long time, pressure exerts between body skin and bed. Increased pressure creates a force which resists blood flow to that area. Decreased blood flow to particular area leads to cell death, so the skin tissue and underlying tissue damage occurs. This is called as bedsores, due prolonged stay on bed, or Pressure sore, because the sore is occurred due to excess pressure.

Causes of Bedsore

  • Various factors causes bedsores, such as
  • Staying on wheel chair or being bed ridden for long time,
  • Fragile skin
  • Reduced blood flow to skin in conditions such as diabetes and vascular disease,
  • Malnourishment leads to less adipose tissue and causes Bedsores,
  • Inability of person to get aware of skin lesions or irritation, in chronic conditions such as stroke, alzheimers disease,
  • Wrinkled skin in old age which undergoes pressure,
  • Urinary incontinence,
  • Bowel incontinence,
  • Poor hygiene and wrinkled bed, etc

Factors Causes Bedsore

Pressure :  Prolonged single position or decubitus, compresses the skin and underlying tissue between bony prominences of body and Bed. The pressure is exerted between bed and body skin. Increased pressure reduces blood flow to the area, decreases tissue perfusion, ischemia occurs and causes tissue necrosis i.e. Bedsores.

Sheer force : A force created between body skin, when patient in same position as a deep fascia and skeletal muscle slided down with gravity. Resistance developed by this force, reduces blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis, causes bedsore.

Friction : Friction occurs between body skin and bed while jerking the body on bed causes Bedsores.

Symptoms of Bedsores/ Pressure Ulcer

Stage 1 : Red patch is found on the skin, when pressed on patch, it doesn’t change to white. Is the starting stage of bedsore.

Stage 2 : Blisters are formed on the skin, later blisters may become open, red irritating area is found.

Stage 3 : sore or lesion is formed on the skin, even the underlying tissue damage occurs.

Stage 4 : Deep ulcer is formed along with damage to muscles and bone. Usually the bony prominences at joints are affected with bedsore or pressure ulcer.

Treatment of Bedsores

Group of health care team provides care to treat Bedsores.

Nurse places a major role in treating Bedsores.

Change the position of patient as the bedsore area get relief.

Dress the wound cleansing with betadine and other antibiotic solutions.

Improve the nutrition of patient,

If needed with doctors order administer the antibiotics.

Prevention of Bedsores

As we know prevention is better than cure, with proper health care Bedsore can be prevented.

Change the position of patient fro every two hours,

Bed should be soft and neat with no wrinkles,

Pressure reducing things such as pillows, sheepskin, foam padding and powders to be used to prevent bedsores.

Range of motion exercises are provided for immobile patients, daily.

Provide orange juice and Vitamin C rich food to enhance healing,

Provide special care for unconscious patients, patients with urinary and bowel incontinence

Cosmetic surgery: facts

  • Cosmetic surgery is the surgery conducted to repair the body part, which has deviation from normal structure and function. Cosmetic surgery aims in restoring the beauty of the person. After cosmetic surgery you look better and also makes you to feel better.
  • In these modern days, everybody likes to look nice and beautiful. Cosmetic surgery has helped number of people to have a good physical appearance.
  • Everybody likes to keep their physical appearance good, along with inner beauty of mind. To have definite body shape we will go for exercises, diet, etc. If some body part has a deviation from normal structure or function, COSMETIC SURGERY has become a boon to them.
  • The beauty after cosmetic surgery gives self – image to the person.
  • Cosmetic surgery provides the physical beauty and provides self confidence to the person.
  • Poor beauty may lead to lack of self image, but cosmetic surgery helps them.
  • Lack of good physical appearance leads to inferiority complex, while Cosmetic surgery aids to have good physical appearance.
  • Cosmetic surgery helps to mould the physical disfigurement of the body.
  • Cosmetic surgery helps in maintaining good physical shape and helps to maintain physical and emotional well being of person.
  • People can come out of worries such as they have worries with their face, nose, neck, waist, hair etc, with cosmetic surgery.
  • Cosmetic surgery provides good shape to body parts such as Face, Nose, Neck, Waist, hairs etc and makes the individual feel happy.

Occupational cancer : causes and prevention of cancer

Occupational cancer

Cancer caused from the occupation, or due to nature of work is called as Occupational cancer. Occupational cancer is a serious problem of the industry. The sites of the body usually affected by occupational exposure are skin, lungs, urinary bladder, and blood forming organs such as spleen etc.

Studies conducted from the different associations on occupational exposure and cancer, provides the approximate data that, 20000 cancer deaths, and 40000 new cancer cases in the United States are due to occupational exposure.

Millions of workers are working in the industries, and being exposed to occupational hazards even after those substances are carcinogenic.

Types of occupational cancer

Skin Cancer

 It is found that cancer of scrotum and the skin in the other part of body was caused by coal tar, X- rays, certain oils and dyes. According to statistics, nearly 75 % of occupational cancers are skin cancer.Skin cancer are an occupational hazard among gas workers, tar distillers, oil refiners, dye, stuff makers, road makers, and in industries associated with the use of mineral oil, pitch, tar,and related compounds.

Lung cancer

It is a occupational hazard in the gas industry, asbestos industry, nickel and chromium work, arsenic roasting plants, and mining of radio active substances causes occupational lung cancer. Lung cancer is also associated with smoking.

Bladder cancer

 It is normally caused in aniline industry and rubber industry. Bladder cancer or occupational bladder cancer is caused due to exposure aromatic amines. Bladder cancer is also caused by exposure to chemicals in dyeing industries, rubber, gas and electric cables industries.


  it is the another name of blood cancer. Exposure to roentgen rays, an radioactive substances causes leukemia.

these are the main occupational cancer or occupational hazards.