Kidney infection : Kidney Pain, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Kidney infection

Infection of the kidney with microorganism is called as kidney infection. Kidney infection is also called as pyelonephritis, is special type of upper urinary tract infection. The infection to kidney is passed to kidney through urethra, urinary bladder and ureter.

The main function of kidney is to purify the blood, Water absorption, maintains biochemical levels in the body and also regulates blood pressure through renin angiotensin system.

Urine is formed after filtration of blood and renal tubules helps in the absorption of different electrolytes and water.  The urine formed in the kidney is passed through ureters to the urinary bladder. From urinary bladder to urine is passed out with voluntary effort through urethra.

The infected bladder provides an opportunity for micro organisms to ascend into upper urinary tract and causes kidney infection. The infected kidney leads to kidney pain. Bacteria are the common micro organisms causes kidney infection. Sever kidney infection causes pus formation and kidney pain.

Diagnosis of Kidney infection

Diagnosis of kidney infection is made by urine test. The protein urea, passing pus cells or epithelial cells in the urine, confirms the kidney infection or urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are used to treat  kidney infection and analgesics to relieve kidney pain. Ultrasound scan shows any enlargement of kidney due to severe kidney infection.

Causes of kidney infection and kidney pain

The untreated lower urinary tract infection is the main cause of kidney infection. The untreated kidney infection leads to improper kidney function and even leads to kidney failure also.

  • Causes of kidney pain may of different origin.
  • abdominal surgeries,
  • urinary cauterization,
  • kidney biopsy,
  • Untreated kidney infection may cause kidney pain,
  • An external injury to kidney also causes kidney pain,
  • Presence of kidney stones leads to kidney pain. The kidney pain may be radiating and felt in the lower back region.

Symptoms of kidney infection

  • continued urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain while passing urine,
  • lower abdominal pain
  • urine is Cloudy in nature with  strong odour
  • Pus or red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
  • urinary retention
  • nocturia, passing urine during night
  • low Back pain, (kidney pain) or groin pain
  • fatigue, nausea and vomiting etc..

Treatment of kidney infection and kidney pain

Treatment of kidney infection is given with antibiotics. Give plenty of water to kidney infection person. To relieve kidney pain, analgesics are administered. The kidney pain is very complicated  and immediate diagnosis and treatment is needed with hospitalization.

Heart disease symptoms : Heart attack causes

Heart disease

Heart is the cone shaped blood pumping organ situated between lungs in chest cavity and has a very very vital function in the body. The diseases or abnormalities are called as heart disease and number of symptoms or clinical features which indicates heart disease are called as heart disease symptoms or heart symptoms.

Impaired heart structure and function is called as heart disease and the heart symptoms are very clear and can be identified by the heart disease individual and a doctor.

Causes of heart disease symptoms

Diseases such as hypertensive diseases, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, and other disorders causes heart disease symptoms. The heart is the main organ of circulatory system and  heart disease directly affects the circulatory changes of body.

Coronary artery disease, the condition in which narrowing of the heart wall supplying blood vessels with accumulation of  fats and plaque is the main cause of heart disease symptoms.

Heart disease is the number one cause of death in united states, and heart disease symptoms should be known to heart patients to prevent complications. Most of heart disease develops gradually and heart attack is an acute heart disease, if not treated leads to death of affected individual.

Heart disease symptoms

Common heart disease symptoms include chest discomfort, Chest pain and left shoulder pain, shortness of breath, nausea, coldness, vomiting, unexplained severe headache, sweating, anxiety, heart burning sensation, swelling of ankles, etc

Heart symptoms vary according to heart disease. Heart symptom or heart disease symptoms in case of heart attack  are* feeling of nausea,

  • dizziness,  headache or pain the jaw,
  • pain the shoulder or in the left arm,
  • chest pain of  squeezing nature

Most of heart attack occurs without heart symptoms, and these heart attack should need kind attention to save the life.

Heart disease  symptoms in the case of arrhythmia are, the person realizes that his or her heart is occasionally missing a beat in between. Palpitation is also one of heart symptoms. No personal decision should be made about heart disease symptoms and one should get checked for heart symptoms by the cardiologist or doctor.

Arrhythmia is the clear heart symptom which indicates inability of heart to pump enough blood because of heart disease such as heart valve problems, which may  be indication of damage to heart valve.

Chest pain with radiating nature, increased with work is the clear heart disease symptom which indicates heart is in problem. The common cause of chest pain are atherosclerosis, moving clots in coronary arteries, etc.

Fatigue and swelling of the extremities are heart disease symptoms in case of heart failure. Feeling of lungs filled with fluid by the patient and difficulty breathing are heart symptoms of disease.

The signs and symptoms of atrial fibrillation  are fainting, feeling of heaviness inside the chest, dizziness and  heart palpitations are heart disease symptoms.

Brain lesions : Brain damage, Causes, treatment

Brain lesions

An abnormal area of brain tissue anatomically or physiologically is called as brain lesion. The MRI scan shows the shadow area or abnormal image, which confirms, the brain lesions. The brain lesions may be formed as a blood clot, cerebral hemorrhage, etc.

MRI scan doesn’t confirms clear diagnosis of brain lesions and careful assessment is needed to diagnose brain lesions. Familial history of brain lesions is one of the risk factor for development of brain lesions. Mechanical or internal brain damage is also considered as brain lesion.

Researchers have confirmed that nearly 5 % of individuals who have brain lesions are prone to have heart holes, i.e. impaired closure of foreman ovale.

Causes of brain lesions

  • Unstable blood pressure also causes white matter brain lesions.
  • Previous head injury,
  • Genetic mutation also causes brain lesions.
  • Accumulation of death nerve cells also causes micro lesions in old age people.
  • Head trauma with incomplete healing,
  • Cerebral Stroke
  • Brain tumors (benign or malignant)
  • Internal cerebral hemorrhage,
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Brain injury
  • Congenital brain anomalies, such as hydrocephalus

Severe migraine headaches  are caused because brain lesions. MRI scan of individuals with migraine headaches shows presence of brain lesions. The early detection and treatment should be given to prevent further complications. Presence of small brain lesions may not cause any trouble to individuals and large lesions should be treated immediately ; otherwise brain function may be altered. Some lesions are formed after strokes and brain function is disturbed as the paralysis occurs.

Symptoms of large brain lesions

  • Sense of smell impaired,
  • Unable to taste properly,
  • Unable to balance the body,
  • Hand tremors,
  • Mental confusion
  • some lesions causes dementia and cerebral stroke… are the some symptoms of brain lesions, which affects different functional centers in the body.
  • Multiple brain lesions are found in some individuals, and these brain lesions causes sever symptoms such as mental confusion, etc.. Some mental disorders are such as organic disorders of brain may be caused by untreated brain lesions. Parenchymal brain lesions causes Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis  in neonates and children.The neonates will have smaller brain lesion and elders children will have large lesions.

People who eat fish high with omega 3 fatty acids more than three times a day are at lower risk of developing silent brain lesions. Brain aging can be slow down by taking certain food stuffs in the diet. Brain damage of different origins should be avoided to prevent mental abnormalities.

Pregnancy weight gain tips for normal and obese mothers

A number of physiological and metabolic changes that occur during pregnancy are responsible for pregnancy weight gain. Gaining adequate weight during pregnancy by eating a healthy balanced diet is very essential for well development of growing fetus. The diet during pregnancy should provide all nutrients that mother needs. Pregnancy weight gain is related to height weight and body mass index of pregnant mother.

The pregnancy weight gain happens as the baby grows, mother consumes good nutrients to serve the baby. Generally pregnant mother have to consume extra 100 to 300 more calories in order to serve the growing fetus.

Health care provider will tell how much weight the pregnant mother should gain during pregnancy. Pregnancy weight gain in normal mothers is nearly 9 to 10 kg. Mothers who are weak before pregnancy should increase the pregnancy weight gain than normal pregnant women. The mother who is obese before pregnancy should increase pregnancy weight gain by 3 to 4 kg. The medical advice is needed to maintain correct pregnancy weight gain.

Pregnancy weight gain is distributed as follow

  • Baby                                       – 8 pounds
  • Placenta                                – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Amniotic fluid                    – 2 to 3 pounds
  • Breast tissue                       – 2 to 3 pounds
  • blood supply                       – 4 pounds
  • uterus growth                     – 2 to 5 pounds
  • Increased fat in body      – 5 to 9 pounds
  • Total                      – 25 to 35 pounds.

Tips for weight maintenance

  • Eat frequent but small diet with good nutrients.
  • eat easy snacks on hand, nuts, raisins, cheese, crackers, dried fruit, and ice cream etc.
  • Use pulses and grams in food as it provides adequate protein to the body.
  • Milk and milk products can be used adequately as they provide most of the vital nutrients to the body and help in maintaining weight gain.
  • Eat fiber rich diet to  avoid constipation
  • green leaf vegetables are very essential food for pregnant mother to have an ideal weight gain and to provide enriched nutrients to pregnant mother.

Increased pregnancy weight gain! what to do ?

If you have increased weight during pregnancy in the first trimester or early pregnancy stage, don’t try to reduce the weight by avoiding food. Back ache and drowsiness are the common problem with increased pregnancy weight gain.  Use food with less fat and calories and use much green leaf vegetables to avoid further weight gain during pregnancy. Consult your doctor and ask him what all you can eat and in what quantities.

Kidney failure : symptoms, kidney disease Treatment

Kidney failure

Kidneys have the important  role of purifying blood and maintains water and electrolyte balance. Symptoms of kidney failure vary from person to person as per the severity of kidney damage or inability of kidneys to filter blood. The most cases of kidney failure are identified in the later stages, when kidney disease symptoms becomes severe. Significant decrease in the urine production is the main symptoms of kidney failure. Water and electrolyte balance is mainly altered and is the main symptoms of kidney failure.

In the beginning  symptoms of kidney failure  are asymptomatic, later as the kidney function decreases, symptoms of kidney failure  are manifested as decreased urinary output, fatigue, flank pain, etc.

Oliguria is the term used for urine production less than 400 ml per 24 hrs. In chronic kidney failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops slowly and gradually progressed. But in case of acute renal failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops fast. In both acute and chronic renal failure, the symptoms of kidney failure indicates immediate treatment is needed to prevent complications.

Main symptoms of kidney failure 

1.  Urinary changes,

2.  Swelling or edema,

3.  Fatigue,

4.  Itching and Skin  rashes ,

5.  Metabolic acidosis

6.  Arrhythmias

7.  Shortness of breath

8 . Metallic taste in mouth

1. Urinary changes

  • Decreased urinary output,
  • Dark coloured urine,
  • Painful micturition,
  • Foamy or bubbly urine passing,
  • Blood cells in the urine,
  • Increased effort for urination.

2. Swelling or edema

The increased nitrogenous wastes in the body formed because of inability of kidney to remove body metabolic wastes leads to water retention and causes  swelling or edema of legs, ankles, feet, face etc. Generalised edema also occurs. Electrolytes impairment by the kidney also leads to edema, is one of the  kidney disease symptoms.

3. Fatigue and Weakness

Kidney failure leads to less production of hormone erythropoietin, the hormone which stimulates production of red blood cells in the body. The decreased hormone production by the Kidneys causes low RBC production and while causes anemia. Anemia is symptomized by generalized weakness and fatigue. This symptoms of kidney failure is develops in chronic kidney failure.

4. Itching and Skin  rashes

are the symptoms of kidney failure occurs because of increased uric acid and elevated nitrogenous wastes in the body, which buildup of wastes in the blood  and causes Itching and Skin  rashes. These symptoms of kidney failure are developed with kidney functions decreased significantly.

5. Metabolic acidosis

Increased acidity is one of symptom of kidney failure. When kidney becomes unable maintain normal  bicarbonate level in body  causes metabolic acidosis.

6. Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia are the abnormal conduction of electric impulses of the heart  is caused due to Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is the term used to indicate elevated  level of potassium in the body. Potassium level is increased in body when kidney kidney fails to excrete excess potassium through nephrons.

7. Shortness of breath

is the symptoms of kidney failure seen when fluid accumulation occurs in lungs, called pulmonary edema. The decreased kidney function leads to fluid and water retention causes shortness of breath with pulmonary edema.

8. Metallic taste in mouth

is the minor kidney disease symptoms formed as increased wastes in the blood  causes bad breath. The metallic taste is also felt by the patient of kidney failure. This makes individual not to take food. This kidney disease symptoms is associated with most of renal disorders.

Minor symptoms of kidney failure are

Nausea and vomiting is also related to bad breath and metallic taste in mouth. Loss of appetite also occurs as the nitrogenous wastes accumulates in the body.

Pain in the lower back is a kidney pain, is the later symptoms of kidney failure. This pain is also called flank pain. Low back pain is the kidney disease symptoms seen with cystic disease of kidney, kidney tumor, poly-cystic kidney disease, etc.

Coldness of extremities due to decreased blood supply and anemia.

Dizziness and uneasiness are minor symptoms of kidney failure. This is because the brain receives less oxygenated blood and severe anemia. These are the minor symptoms of kidney failure.


Treatment of  underlying cause of kidney failure is important to restore the function of kidney.

Diuretics are given to reduce ankle edema. Immediate diagnosis of kidney failure helps in selecting treatment option as per need of patient and severity of kidney failure.

Dialysis is the emergency treatment for purifying blood and to remove breakdown products of amino-acid from the body.

Pertussis : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment


Pertussis is also called as whooping cough. Pertussis is an  important communicable disease caused by bacteria,  results in uncontrollable, violent cough. Especially children are affected with pertussis.  As the sound comes during cough and taking air in, is called as whooping cough.  Nearly 5000 to 10000 children in united states are dieing every year because of pertussis.

Causes of pertussis

Bordetella pertussis, the bacteria causes pertussis infection. Pertussis is the disease of upper respiratory tract, if not treated causes permanent disability in children and may lead to death. Pertussis transmitted when an infected person sneezes or coughs, the bacteria spreads to air, and the person who inhales pertussis infected air droplets becomes infected with pertussis. Hence pertussis is an infectious disease easily spreads from person to person. Cough, sneezing, runny nose are the early symptoms of pertussis. After the pertussis bacteria multiplies in body, severe cough starts. Children experience weakness, fatigue and discomfort as the cough becomes severe. The continuous cough leads to impaired breathing and the children make whoop sound after coughing, is called whooping cough. Whooping sound is absent in infants less than 8 months. Some children vomits along with small amount of sputum. Coughing and vomiting simultaneously may lead to chocking in infants. Pertussis infection usually lasts for a period of 6 weeks. Whooping cough affects not only children but elder people can also get infected with pertussis. Now the incidence of pertussis is reduced as children are immunized during infancy, and higher rate pertussis is seen in  adolescents and elders.

Symptoms of pertussis

  • Runny nose, sneezing
  • mild fever up to 102 °F.
  • Severe, continuous cough
  • difficulty in  breathing
  • both night and day cough,
  • vomiting with sputum and cough,
  • dry cough develops after some days,
  • presence of whooping sound after cough while taking breath,
  • generalized weakness and fatigue,
  • Some children will have diarrhoea,
  • Choking may occur in infants.

Diagnosis of pertussis

The initial diagnosis is the physical examination and history collection. The symptoms of pertussis are similar to pneumonia and the careful examination is needed to diagnose pertussis.

  • Sputum test for bacterial culture,
  • Nasal secretions test in laboratory,
  • Chest x ray is also taken to differentiate from pertussis.
  • Blood test is done to check elevated white blood cells.

Treatment of Pertussis

Antibiotics such as erythromycin and amoxicillin are the choice of drugs for pertussis treatment. Analgesics and antipyretics  are given to reduce fever and body ache. Incentive care should be taken to treat the infants infected with pertussis, and careful monitoring of progress of diseases and prognosis of treatment is needed. Hospitalization is needed in severe pertussis infected children. An oxygen tent with high humidity is used for infants have breathing difficulty. Intravenous fluids administration is also done to maintain water and electrolyte balance. Sedatives  may be given by the pediatrician for young children to avoid crying and induce sleep. Expectorants, and cough suppressants are  not helpful in treating pertussis.

Prevention of pertussis

The DPT vaccine ( diphtheria, pertussis,tetanus) or only pertussis vaccine Helps lot in preventing pertussis. Immunization schedule n most of countries  recommended for DPT-vaccine in infancy itself. The booster shot of pertussis is given after some months in infants. In adults also booster dose of pertussis is given to prevent pertussis in adolescents and adults. Pertussis affected children should follow the measures to prevent spread of pertussis infection by wearing face mask, or avoiding school for some days. The vaccination also given to elders aged above 65 years to prevent pertussis.

Pregnancy symptoms : early signs and symptoms of pregnancy

Early pregnancy symptoms

Pregnancy symptoms are the experiences felt by the mother during gestational period. The pregnancy symptoms varies from one woman to another. Pregnancy symptoms varies in their frequency, intensity and duration. The pregnancy symptoms can appear same as that of pre-menstrual discomforts.The woman experiences variety of physical mental changes in the period of pregnancy. These all pregnancy symptoms are listed below. These are considered as typical early pregnancy symptoms, these may in there duration of appearance. Some of the pregnancy symptoms are subtle, they are not obvious.

The pregnancy symptoms may confused with other pathological causes. Pregnancy symptoms may occur within a week of conception but these may occur after few weeks in other woman. For confirmation of Pregnancy symptoms the woman must undergo pregnancy test. Following are the important Pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms no – 1

Amenorrhea : There is missing in monthly regular menstrual cycle is called amenorrhea. This is most important symptom of pregnancy, if there is absence of two continues cycle indicate conception and is the early and vital sign of pregnancy. But sometimes it may confuse with other causes, so the woman must undergo pregnancy test immediately.

Some woman might not have missing of cycle but experience lighter period when compared with the previous cycles is also a pregnancy symptoms. Sometimes there are chances of delay in the duration of the menstruation. And the next period should miss if the woman is under pregnancy. Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms : These amenorrhea symptoms often confused with hormonal problems, fatigue, Excessive weight gain/loss, breast-feeding, ceasing to take the birth control pill, tension, stress. So the woman must undergo pregnancy test as soon as possible.

Pregnancy symptoms – 2

Increase in the breast size :There will be chances of Breast Tenderness, that means swollen, and enlarge in size of the breast and breast sore will be present. These changes might happen because of breast undergo some hormonal changes for the purpose of producing milk. This is one of the pregnancy symptoms.

When women becomes pregnant, mother’s body begins preparing  breasts for producing milk and breastfeeding. Hormones start increasing. In addition to breast tenderness and swelling,   nipples may feel sore or extra sensitive. Some women notice their nipples darken in color.

There will be development of primary and secondary areola leads to darkening of the nipples, and the breast will becomes more sensitive. This is the most important early symptom of pregnancy. Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms : Enlargement of the breast is often confused side effects of birth control pills, hormonal imbalance, impending menstruation also will cause the breast tenderness.

Pregnancy symptoms – 3

Fatigue : Because of the growth of the fetus there is increase in the fatigue and exhaustion. The mother will start to go to bed as sooner and she will be tired of doing a small works, she will feel harder to get from bed in the morning.

Mother has to put more efforts for exercises, simple activities may feel wiped and the mother feels light headed.

Differential diagnosis of pregnancy symptoms: Fatigue also associated with exhaustion, stress, common cold or flu, depression and other illness also causes feeling of tiredness or fatigued.

Pregnancy symptoms – 4

Nausea/Morning sickness : There is a presence of sensation of vomiting, this is a signs of queasiness, the mother will have nausea in the morning when she is going to have coffee or if she is going to take breakfast on an empty stomach. During this period mother will suffer from this problem very adversely. Morning sickness is also important among Pregnancy symptoms.
This can be reduced by eating smaller, and by taking more frequent snack size meals. And also it can be helped with saltine crackers and milk. This will appear after a period of month and it will persist till the body get adjust to the changes.

Differential diagnosis  of Pregnancy symptoms: This is also associated with food poisoning, other stomach disorders and stress can also cause mother to feel queasy.

Pregnancy symptoms – 5

Frequent Urination : It is one of the early pregnancy symptom mother will frequently void the urine. This pregnancy symptom is due to increase in the size of the uterus puts more pressure on the bladder causing frequent urination.

This also due increase in volume of body fluids and there is increase in process of kidneys and bladder. This pregnancy symptom will persist till nine months.

Other causes: Diabetes, urinary tract infection, increasing liquid intake and taking excessive diuretics.

Pregnancy symptom – 6

Heartburn and/or Constipation : Due to presence of the oestrogen hormone there is relaxation of the cardiac sphincter so it leads to gastroesophageal reflux. The gastric content will reflux in to the oesophagus and causing burning sensation. And also it caused due to increase in the size of the uterus will pushing the other organs towards the stomach. Heartburn is the minor Pregnancy symptoms.

Increased level of hormones may slow down the digestion, leading to heartburn. The bowel function will allow the body to absorb the minerals and vitamins, nutrients as much as possible from the foods.
Treatment includes drinking plenty of water and eats fruits, small frequent foods and vegetables, soda crackers and sparkling water will help to reduce the burning. And it also can be reduced by taking some quality vitamin formulas contain digestive enzymes will help with digestion. In severe cases mother should have to take some antacids prescribed by the doctor.

Pregnancy symptoms  – 7

Higher body temperature : There will be increase in the temperature of the body higher than the normal and it will persist for two weeks. But if the fever is persists for prolonged period mother may have to seek the doctor. Higher body temperature is the minor Pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptom – 8

Lack of concentration : Because of the fatigue, morning sickness the mother will feel mentally fuzzy, and even when the mother took the rest she may experience an inability to concentrate and she will have forgetfulness. Lack of concentration is also a minor pregnancy sign.

Pregnancy symptom – 9

Mood Swings : When there is fluctuation in the hormonal level leads to variation in the mood during pregnancy. The mother will feel mixed emotions, excitement and depression, and as well as the joy and sorrow, tears and laughter. She will be confused and need support and understanding. This early pregnancy symptoms may decrease in the second trimester. It can also be reduced by get plenty of sleep, by taking prenatal vitamins, eat at right time and by some moderate exercises. Mood swings may not appear in all mothers with pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms – 10

Bloating and Weight Gain : In pregnancy there will be gradual increase in the weight of the mother, its due to increase in the size of the fetus. And also it is due to increase in the extracellular fluid volume, growth of the uterus. Weight Gain is the later pregnancy symptoms.

Pregnancy symptoms no – 11

Low Back Pain :Due to alteration in the posture and increase in the weight gain as well as difference in the body alignment leads to prolonged back pain. The pain is in the torso which pulls on mothers back.

These are the main symptoms of pregnancy.

Fever: causes, symptoms, measurement, classification & treatment


Fever can be defined as elevation of the body temperature more than usually by about 1-2 ° above the normal 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (F) or 37 degrees Celsius (C). Fever is not a disease and is a symptom and it differs from hyperthermia.

Causes of fever

  • Viral or bacterial Infections : influenza, common cold, Human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, infectious mononucleosis, or gastroenteritis, strep throat, pneumonia, flu and chickenpox, Endocarditis, Encephalitis and Meningitis Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu), Melioidosis, Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and other infections causes fever.
  • Various skin inflammations : boils, pimples, acne, or abscess cause fever.
  • Immunological diseases : lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel diseases also cause fever.
  • Tissue destruction : which can occur in hemolysis, surgery, infarction, crush syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, cerebral hemorrhage, etc cause fever.
  • Drug fever : is directly caused by the drug, e.g. lamictal, progesterone, or chemotherapeutics causing tumor necrosis.
  • as an adverse reaction to drugs, e.g. antibiotics or sulfa drugs.
  • After drug discontinuation, e.g. heroin or fentanyl withdrawal
  • Cancers : most commonly renal cancer and leukemia and lymphomas leads to fever as a first  symptom.
  • Metabolic disorders : gout or porphyria also causes fever.
  • Thromboembolic processes : pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis

Symptoms & Signs of fever

  • Increase in body temperature more than 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C) is main sign of fever.
  • presence of chills due to increase in temperature of the body than the external environment is associated with fever.
  • Increase in heart rate and muscle tone is the main symptom of fever.
  • Shivering will be there.
  • In severe cases of fever sometimes there will be presence of delirium and convulsions. Delirium and convulsions  are usually seen in children.
  • When there is rise in body temperature patient feels warm. If fever reduces the person may start to sweat.
  • Severe cases of fever will be associated with some other symptoms at that time the patient has to meet the doctor immediately to treat fever.

Measurement of fever

The fever is measured using an instrument called thermometer. It contains mercury in it. The instrument is placed in different parts of the body and the temperature can be measured. There are varies types of thermometer are there. They are

  • oral thermometer,
  • axillary thermometer and
  • anal thermometer.

If the temperature is taken in the anal region we have to subtract 1 degree from the total temperature because there is always high temperature in there.
If the temperature is measured in the oral region it is the normal there is no need of adding or subtraction.
When we are taking temperature in the axillary route we have to add 1 degree

Classification of fever

fever is classified according to the grade of temperature, they are

  • Low grade fever : approximately varies from 100.4-102.2 degrees of F
  • Moderate fever : approximately varies from 102.2-104.0 degrees of F
  • High grade fever : approximately varies from104.0-107.6 degrees of F
  • Hyperpyrexia : is the maximum level that is more than the 107.6 degrees of F

Advantages of fever

  • According to some studies the fever is essential for the immune bodies to fight against the antigen of bacteria. it speeds up certain immunological reactions.
  • Fever may be sometimes very essential in some extents because it cause unbearable environment for the pathogens.
  • Fever is useful for the immunological bodies, it provides favorable environment for the white blood cells, so they will proliferate easily and can fight against the pathogens. There will be increased activity during fever.

Treatment for fever

  • Fever is not treated essentially because it is a essential reaction of our body. So the fever needs only the symptomatic management. There will be so much of dehydration so the patient should be hydrated properly with intravenous fluids.
  • During fever period the patient may be disoriented, so the patient needs psychological support to recover from fever, nurse should give psychological assurance that fever will be get reduced as soon as possible.
  • The fever patient needs complete bed rest, and room should be well ventilated and provide an environment to sleep well.
  • Feed the fever patient only with small, frequent diet, because there will be alteration in the bowel pattern and indigestion may occur.
  • The immediate cause of the fever should be found and proper steps to be taken to reduce fever.
  • There will be chances of hyponatremia, the patient is given sports’ drinks or intravenous administration of the electrolytes.
  • If the fever is so high, cold bath or tepid sponge bath should be given.
  • If the fever remains same the patient must take antipyretics like paracetamol or ibuprofen, Aspirin etc.
  • The actual reason for fever should be find out and the cause should be treated immediately.

Rabies vaccine: vaccination grades, dosage and side effects

Rabies can be defined as  ‘ A fatal viral infection, is usually acquired through the bite of an infected animal to the human beings’. Nearly all morbidity in human beings worldwide is due to the bite of a rabid dog, and rabies infection. The rabies occurs from the rabdo virus. Rabies vaccine has reduced the incidence of rabies morbidity.

Rabies vaccination is the active immunizing agent  used to prevent the infection caused by the rabies virus that carried by the animals. It is a killed rabies virus vaccine.

There are two types of rabies vaccinations

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis : this type of rabies vaccination is done for the persons who are at high risk of getting infected. Animal handlers, veterinarians, travelers, the persons who are in contact with the wild animals are likely to get infected.
  2. Post-exposure prophylaxis : this type of rabies vaccination prophylaxis is done to the patients who are exposed to the animal bites, indicated by bite, scratch, or lick.

Facts related to rabies vaccine

  • The rabies  spreads through the pet animals as well as wild animals; dogs, bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, horses, swine, foxes and cattle are the usual ones. So it is better to immunize the domestic animals with rabies vaccine.
  • A person who is bitten by the infected animal  should receive the rabies vaccine after the animal bite. If patient is known to be hypersensitive to the rabies vaccine, then the rabies vaccine should be administered under supervision with all the immediate measures for managing anaphylactic shock.
  • Prophylactic use of the rabies vaccination should be avoided in children, adolescents, antenatal mother & adults on treatment for any acute illness.
  • Pre exposure rabies vaccine is to be avoided if person is known to be allergic to rabies vaccine.
  • The further rabies vaccination or  immunization is avoided in persons who had complications on rabies vaccine administration.

The immunization schedule is classified under some grades as

  • Grade I : when the person is in contact with the animal but not in contact with the saliva or blood. For this kind scheduled rabies vaccination is not needed.
  • Grade II : If the animal has licked or if any other kind of expose to the saliva and superficial, non- bleeding scratches made by the animal, immediate rabies vaccine immunization should be given according to the schedule B.
  • Grade III :  includes all bites, bleeding scratches, all wounds on the head, neck, scapular region, extremities. Direct contact of animal saliva with mucous membrane of patient, immediate concomitant prophylaxis with rabies vaccine is needed according to schedule C.

The classification according to severity of expose to animal

Schedule A: In this type one injection of rabies vaccine of Prophylactic immunization prior to exposure is given. One injection is given IM on days 0,7,28 and 365.

Schedule B: Immunization vaccine  should be given after exposure but it is of somewhat long  coarse. One injection of  rabies vaccine IM is given on days 0,3,7,14,30 & if necessary it is given on day 90.

Special precautions for rabies vaccine administration

The person who has received rabies vaccine of doubtful potency and who has discontinued the course of injections has to receive the entire course of rabies vaccine according to exposure.  In case the person is re-exposed after 5 yrs., entire course should be completed according to grade of exposure.

Dosage and administration of rabies vaccine

There is no difference in the dose for children & adults. 1ml of rabies vaccine is given by intramuscular injection in the deltoid muscle (arm) or in the thigh in small children. The prescribed schedule should be followed strictly  even if some time has passed since the exposure.

Rabies vaccine side effects

  • This rabies vaccine doesn’t cause that much vital side effects, but it will cause generally mild and non serious side effects.
  • There will be a mild pain, redness and swelling may occur at injection spot as a side effect.
  • Rarely arthritis, gastrointestinal disorders or lymph node swelling may occur as  rabies vaccine side effects.
  • Sometimes anaphylactic shock may occur.

Contraindications for rabies vaccine

If there are hypersensitivity reactions to the vaccine or acute febrile illness the rabies vaccine is contraindicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis. In case of pregnancy vaccine should be given if the level of risk is high for pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Throat cancer: symptoms and diagnosis

Throat cancer is the malignancy of the throat, it may be the presence of tumor in pharynx or in the larynx. Some of the common symptoms include the lump or the sore that does not heal for the long time, there will be chronic cough, dysphagia will be present for long time, and there will be hoarseness in the voice which not resolves in 1 or 2 week.

The throat cancer symptoms sometimes may be due to some other reasons will be often confused with the throat cancer symptoms so there should be proper diagnosis and treatment should be given. And the doctor must collect the history of all the symptoms.

General throat cancer symptoms

  • Epistaxis
  • Chronic earaches
  • Pain in the upper teeth
  • Headaches
  • Swelling in the eyes
  • Chronic sinus infections that do not go away when treated with antibiotics
  • Blocked sinuses that will not clear
  • Sore throat that not decrease for weeks even antibiotics are administered is main throat cancer symptoms.
  • There will be sudden unexplained weight loss
  • Coughing of blood
  • Breath sounds will be high pitched
  • Blood-flecked phlegm.
  • The sensation of something permanently stuck in the throat as a throat cancer symptoms.
  • ( Gastrointestinal disorders )
  • Excessive reflux, diarrhoea or constipation
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Disfigurement of face
  • Deformities in skin and other
  • Throat Cancer Symptoms that are very prominent.
  • There is a presence of Numbness or paralysis of facial muscles
  • There will be chronic Facial pain associated with throat cancer symptoms.
  • Long duration neck pain is also a throat cancer symptoms.

Diagnosis of throat cancer

  • If there is presence of all the above throat cancer symptoms the patient should undergo immediately some diagnostic measures to confirm the throat cancer. The diagnostic test includes the following. Laryngoscopy :there is lighted camera in a tube is introduced in to the throat and the throat is examined for the presence of the tumor or malignancy is used to diagnose throat cancer symptoms.
  • CT scan of the cranium should be done or the cranial MRI can be done to confirm the cancer that spread to the lymph nodes, is used to diagnose throat cancer symptoms.
  • Biopsy is the collection of the tissue from throat to confirm with the tumor cells. Under microscopic examination of this cell will reveal the cancer cells, is used to diagnose throat cancer symptoms.