Thyroid nodule: causes, facts, biopsy and treatment

Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodule are lumps which commonly grow within thyroid gland. These lumps are the abnormal growths of thyroid tissue which are situated at the edges of thyroid gland and are felt as lump on throat by feeling external palpation. Sometimes thyroid nodule can be seen as a lump in the front of the neck in thin individuals who have less subcutaneous fat deposition.

Causes,  Facts related to thyroid nodule and thyroid biopsy

  • Women are more prone to have thyroid nodule .  1 woman out of 15 has risk of getting thyroid nodule.
  • 1 out of  40 young men has risk of developing thyroid nodule.
  •   discomfort
  • Thyroid nodule are benign tumors and non cancerous cells. Only five percent may develop carcinomas.
  • More than 95 percent of all thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous growths)
  • Some  thyroid nodule  are cysts  filled with fluid rather than thyroid tissue
  • People aged over 50 years have chance of developing thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is done to diagnose the nature of thyroid nodule, as a benign or malignant. Thyroid biopsy is the important diagnostic test for confirmation of thyroid nodule.
  • complete family physical examination, measurement of serum TSH level and FNAB of the nodule are the diagnostic tests done before treatment of thyroid nodule.
  • Ultrasound thyroid scan is done to notify the nature and extent of thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is the procedure done to get the sample tissue for diagnostic studies. Thyroid biopsy is done in the minor OT with aseptic techniques. Care should be taken to avoid damage to blood vessels or thyroid gland while conducting thyroid biopsy. Needle biopsy is the common thyroid biopsy type. Biopsy specimen is tested in the laboratory and nodule nature is identified as benign or malignant.

Treatment of thyroid nodule

Experienced physicians need to treat the thyroid nodule. Treatment based on the nodule is benign or carcinogenic, metastatic. Hormone replacement may done after removal of affected thyroid lobe or thyroid part. Surgery is done to correct or remove thyroid nodule,  concerns about cosmesis should be taken by the surgeon. Patient need  some days of hospitalization and she can lead normal life. Regular medications should be taken as per doctor’s advice. Follow the medical care and have a healthy soft diet. Liquid diet is given for some days after thyroid nodule surgery.

Aphasia: Definition, Causes and Treatment

Aphasia

Definition

“Aphasia is defined as inability to communicate verbally either partially or completely”.

The person with aphasia has difficulty in not only  speaking but also in writing, reading, and recognizing the objects. And also unable to understand what others’ say. Aphasia is mainly caused because of an abnormality in the brain, which affects the speech center in the brain. The conditions such as less oxygen supply to brain,  Traumatic injury to brain, stroke, cause Aphasia.

Causes of Aphasia

1. Stroke is the main cause of aphasia, as the speech center in the brain loses its function. Nearly 18 to 23% of stroke affected people suffer from Aphasia.
2. Head injuries,
3. Encephalitis, and other brain infections
4. Traumatic injury to head and brain.

Most cases of Aphasia are temporary and treated within few days. Complete recovery is possible with effective treatment. But the permanent Aphasia is not treatable, and still millions of Americans are suffering from some form of Aphasia.

Treatment of Aphasia

Treatment aids in improving the communicating ability of the person.

Rehabilitation is given by speech – language pathologist. Aphasia is treated on the basis of extent of brain damage.

Tongue lesions : sore tongue, causes, treatment

http://healthdarts.com/tongue-lesions-or-sore-tongue

Tongue lesions

Lesions occur on the tongue are considered as tongue lesions. Most of tongue lesions are healed without treatment. If tongue lesions are not healed for long time, biopsy is taken and test is conducted to identify any underlying cause.


Causes of tongue lesions

  • Vitamin deficiencies, are common cause of tongue lesions.
  • Malnutrition,
  • iron deficiency anaemia,
  • pernicious anaemia,
  • HIV infection,
  • Oral candidiasis,
  • Local infection,
  • trauma to tongue,
  • Side effects of medications,
  • beverages or tobacco induced lesion,
  • tongue malignancy lesions are the causes of tongue lesions.


Treatment of tongue lesions

  •   Treat the underlying cause such as vitamin deficiencies.
  • Apply analgesic cream on the tongue lesions,
  • Systemic analgesics,
  • Mouth washes with analgesic effect,
  • Avoid mucus irritants such as tobacco, hot foods or drinks,etc.
  • Maintain good mouth hygiene and dental hygiene.
  • Use mouth rinses such as lidocaine 2% topical solution, etc.

Kidney transplantation and care after kidney transplant

Kidney transplantation

Kidney transplantation

Dialysis is given to patient after kidney transplant. Transplantation of donors kidney to treat end stage renal disease is called as kidney transplantation. Usually living donors kidney are used for transplantation, and a biological relation between donor and recipient is important.

Need for kidney transplantation:- End stage kidney diseases such as,

  • Malignant hypertension,
  • Infections, diabetes mellitus and
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • genetic causes include polycystic kidney disease

these problems lead to very less glomerular filtration and in kidney transplantation is needed.


Kidney transplantation and care

The kidney transplanted individuals should undergo Peritoneal or hemodialysis until the transplanted kidneys starts to work properly. Infection control is also very important as the chance of infection is very high after kidney transplantation.

Insulin Administration in Children And Care

Insulin Administration

Insulin administration

The children who have juvenile diabetes mellitus, the special care is needed by parents to administer insulin in children. Because children may not have adequate knowledge to administer insulin by themselves. Most children are depending on their parents to get health care. Although insulin is not secreted in children, the insulin injection is must for children who have Juvenile diabetes mellitus. First the parents should learn how to administer insulin, when should be given, and the dosage of insulin. This helps in maintaining normal blood glucose in the children. Insulin is usually given just before food, because insulin takes some time to act, as soon as the food is observed, the insulin starts working. Don’t skip or miss insulin injection administration,


Few important facts

  • Do the regular exercises,
  • Don’t administer over dose of insulin,
  • Get the clear tips from doctor, how to prevent Hypoglycemia,
  • Precautions to be taken in Diabetes affected children.
  • Avoid getting injuries,
  • Don’t use sharp instruments, for domestic use.
  • Use the right, good footwear, and don’t walk in bare foot.
  • Check for any lesions or injuries on any part of the body.

Delirium tremens: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Delirium is a sudden neural attack, delirium can be prevented. Sudden, mental and neurological symptoms occurrence due to alcohol withdrawal is called as Delirium tremens. Restlessness and agitation are associated with Delirium tremens. Sudden cessation of alcoholism or even excess consumption of alcohol leads to DELIRIUM TREMENS.

Delirium tremens is a withdrawal symptom seen in the individual addicted to Alcohol. Delirium tremens is considered as one of the psychological disorder.

Causes of Delirium tremens

  • The main cause of delirium is excess alcohol drinking, especially when an individual doesn’t take enough food.
  • Head injury, infection, or any illness associated with alcoholism acts as triggering factor of Delirium tremens.
  • Chronic heavy alcoholism, previous history of heavy alcoholism.


Symptoms of delirium tremens

1. Nervousness
2. Feeling shaky
3. Irritability or easily excited
4. Anxiety,
5. Emotional volatility,
6. Emotional instability,
7. Sudden mood change,
8. unable to mingle in group,
9. Depression,
10. Fatigue ,
11. Difficulty in thinking
12. palpitation (sensation of feeling own heart beat) ,
13. Headache, general, pulsating ,
14. Excess Sweating,
15. Especially the palms of the hands or the face ,
16. Nausea, (sensation of vomiting)
17. Loss of appetite,
18. vomiting,
19. Seizures,
20. Tremors,
21. Mental changes, etc

Diagnosis

Physical examination and history collection . Tremors, excess sweating, and other symptoms help  in diagnosis.

Treatment of Delirium tremens

Preventing the complications, restoring health, and relieving symptoms are the treatment goals.

Treatment based on the causes and severity of symptoms.

The pharmacological treatment

  • aticonvulsants such as phenytoin
  • clonidine to reduce cardiovascular symptoms and reduce anxiety
  • central nervous system depressants
  • sedatives such as alprazolam

Psychological care is needed, along with psychological therapies such as group therapy, playing .

Distal Radius Fracture : Treatment, classification, Causes, Symptoms

Distal Radius Fracture

The forearm of human has two bones, Radius and Ulnar. Radius is the largest bone of forearm. Distal end of the Radius is joined with wrist joint. An injury to wrist joint causes Distal Radius Fracture. Breaking or injury to the distal end of radius is called as Distal Radius Fracture.

Distal Radius Fracture is the common fracture of forearm, is usually associated with wrist joint injury. The wrist joint injury troubles lot an individual affected. Ulnar styloid is the common injury associated with Distal Radius Fracture.

Classification of Distal Radius Fracture

  • Cooley’s fracture,
  • smith’s fracture,
  • Barton’s fracture

Causes of Distal Radius Fracture

  • Fall on an outstretched hand is the common cause
  • Moderate to severe force such as a fall from height place
  • Motor vehicle accident
  • metabolic bone diseases and osteoporosis also increases the risk of wrist fracture.

Symptoms of Distal Radius Fracture

  • Severe localized pain,
  • Lack of mobility,
  • Swelling and redness,
  • In compound fracture bleeding is present.
  • Numbness of  hand due to compression of median nerve across the wrist joint.

Diagnosis of Distal Radius Fracture

  • History collection reveals an injury or fracture,
  • Physical examination of wounded site,
  • The fracture almost always occurs  1 inch above  the end of radius bone.
  • X – ray shows the extent of fracture.
  • CT – Scan is done in some cases.

Treatment of Distal Radius Fracture

Immediate care for mild injuries include application of splint.

Reduction : is done under anaesthesia to affected area.

Plaster cast : is applied to broken bone to make injured part immobile.

Immobilise the forearm to prevent further deformity.

Thyroid nodule Thyroid biopsy Treatment nodule Causes Symptoms

Thyroid nodule are lumps which commonly grow within thyroid gland. These lumps are the abnormal growths of thyroid tissue which are situated at the edges of thyroid gland and are felt as lump on throat by feeling external palpation. Sometimes thyroid nodule can be seen as a lump in the front of the neck in thin individuals who have less subcutaneous fat deposition.

Causes,  Facts related to thyroid nodule and thyroid biopsy

  • Women are more prone to have thyroid nodule .  1 woman out of 15 has risk of getting thyroid nodule.
  • 1 out of  40 young men has risk of developing thyroid nodule.
  •   discomfort
  • Thyroid nodule are benign tumors and non cancerous cells. Only five percent may develop carcinomas.
  • More than 95 percent of all thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous growths)
  • Some  thyroid nodule  are cysts  filled with fluid rather than thyroid tissue
  • People aged over 50 years have chance of developing thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is done to diagnose the nature of thyroid nodule, as a benign or malignant. Thyroid biopsy is the important diagnostic test for confirmation of thyroid nodule.
  • complete family physical examination, measurement of serum TSH level and FNAB of the nodule are the diagnostic tests done before treatment of thyroid nodule.
  • Ultrasound thyroid scan is done to notify the nature and extent of thyroid nodule.
  • Thyroid biopsy is the procedure done to get the sample tissue for diagnostic studies. Thyroid biopsy is done in the minor OT with aseptic techniques. Care should be taken to avoid damage to blood vessels or thyroid gland while conducting thyroid biopsy. Needle biopsy is the common thyroid biopsy type. Biopsy specimen is tested in the laboratory and nodule nature is identified as benign or malignant.

Treatment of thyroid nodule

Experienced physicians need to treat the thyroid nodule. Treatment based on the nodule is benign or carcinogenic, metastatic. Hormone replacement may done after removal of affected thyroid lobe or thyroid part. Surgery is done to correct or remove thyroid nodule,  concerns about cosmesis should be taken by the surgeon. Patient need  some days of hospitalization and she can lead normal life. Regular medications should be taken as per doctor’s advice. Follow the medical care and have a healthy soft diet. Liquid diet is given for some days after thyroid nodule surgery.

Male impotence : causes and treatment of Impotence

Male impotence

Inability to have a successful intercourse because of erectile problem is called as Impotence or Male impotence.  most of the men experiences impotence at any part of life. Impotence may be of  short time or long time and effective treatment is needed to treat impotence. All reproductive age group may develop male impotence but the age group above 65 are at risk of developing male impotence.

Impotence can be treatable at any age of an individual. Now a days successful treatment for male impotence is available and the treatment helps  most men with male impotence return to normal sexual activity.

Male impotence Causes

  • Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide have impotence.
  • It is be believed that keeping mobile phones in pocket causes impotence.
  • Diseases like diabetes mellitus, endocrine gland disorder, kidney disease,  etc.
  • Problems in the  structure of reproductive organ or its surrounding tissues may cause impotence.
  • Damage to arteries, smooth muscles and fibrous tissues, surgery or an injury that interfere with nerve impulses transmission or blood flow to the reproductive organ.
  • Psychological upset or emotional stress,  factors like depression, anxiety, grief causes male impotence.
  • As a side effect of medications such as  antihistamines, antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, etc.
  • smoking and obesity which alters blood flow to the  arteries.
  • alcoholism or drug abuse for long time.
  • In men aged  over 65 years, impotence can be caused decreased levels of testosterone hormone, and Hormone replacement therapy is given to treat this male impotence.

Treatment of male impotence

Most of the men won’t get treatment at all. Only ten to twenty percent will get treatment for male impotence.Number of treatment options are available for impotence depending on the cause of male impotence.  Treatment  of male impotence includes reduce stress, counseling and sexual therapy to help solve any sexual problems,  changes in life style, weight control to reduce obesity, alternative  medication to substitute medications which causes impotence, exercises to strengthen pelvic floor, use of an oral medication, a vacuum device or injection or insertion of medicine to sexual organ. Surgical operation is done to correct the deformity of male impotence in some males.

Diabetes : Type 2 diabetes Treatment, Diabetes diet

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a multi system disease related to abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin utilization, or both. It is a serious health problem throughout the world. Factors that cause diabetes mellitus are as follows: age, hereditary, nutrition, pancreatic disorders etc. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are the two types of diabetes and diabetes treatment has lesson the symptoms and relieved from developing complications.

Diabetes Treatment

1) Nutritional Therapy

 Nutritional therapy is the most important step to treat Diabetes Mellitus. The measure steps involved in nutritional therapy is to avoiding high sugar containing foods.

Nutritional therapy For Type-1 Diabetes Treatment

  • Calories- to decrease the body weight and restoring the body tissues help in achieving sugar level in control in diabetes patients.
  • Diet and insulin therapy both helps in the control of blood sugar in diabetes patients.
  • Avoid over intake of glucose by diabetes individual.
  • Flexibility should be avoided in the insulin treatment for diabetes treatment.
  • Moderate physical activities along with the 20 g/hr of Carbohydrates should be maintained for diabetes treatment.
  • Should include more intake of green leafy vegetables in their daily meals and fruits that have low sugar content should be taken.

Nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes

  • Caloric intake should be reduced in over weight or obese patients, as an effective diabetes treatment.
  • Diet alone can sufficiently control blood glucose level.
  • Weight should be reduced to prevent development of Diabetes for success of diabetes treatment.
  • Avoid bed time snacks.
  • If the patient is in insulin or sulfonylureas diabetes treatment, it is necessary to be in nutritional supplement for exercise programs.
  • Alcohol should be avoided because it is high in calories, has no nutritive value, and alcohol also promotes hypertriglyceridemia.
  • High fat contained foods are strictly avoided.
  • More carbohydrate foods should be included in diet along with the protein and very less fat in food.
  • Carbohydrates decreases the absorption of other foods, hence prevent the hyperglycemic state in the patient.
  • High fiber diet decreases the fat absorption in the gastrointestinal track.
  • Artificial sweeteners should be avoided and all above are the nutritional diabetes treatment methods.

2) EXERCISE -Diabetes treatment 

Exercise decreases the blood glucose level by, increasing the glucose uptake by the body muscles and improving the utilization of the insulin by the body tissues. And also decreases the cardiovascular risk factors, by maintaining the balance in the blood i.e, exercise increases the high-density lipoproteins and decreases the amount of low-density lipoprotein in the blood, and hence it alter the blood lipid level. So exercise is an effective method of diabetes treatment. Exercise also improves the feeling of well being and reduces the emotional stress in diabetic patient.

Exercise should be done preferably at the same time daily and in the same amount each day. Walking is safe and beneficial form of exercise in most of the patient as diabetes treatment and it does not require any special precautions to be taken. It is important to increase the exercise gradually is recommended. Vigorous exercises in diabetes treatment is avoided because it is not safe, vigorous exercise increases the blood glucose rapidly, that may lead to diabetes complication. It is better to the exercises after having meals, when the blood glucose rises. It is also important to monitor the blood glucose level during and as well after and before the exercise you begin. Exercises  are best diabetes treatment method.

  • A precaution that to be taken in exercise therapy for diabetes treatment includes
  • Appropriate use of foot wears and other protective equipments.
  • Exercise should be avoided in an extreme heat or cold.
  • Daily inspection of feet is done by diabetic patient during diabetes treatment.
  • Exercise should be avoided during the periods of metabolic rate, for diabetes treatment.

3) Pharmacological therapy – Diabetes treatment

Insulin therapy: insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, which maintain the normal blood glucose level by increasing glucose transport and glucose absorption by the body tissues. Insulin is available in various forms for example Humulin R. lispro, linte, glargine, NPH etc. Insulin therapy is the effective diabetes treatment.

Types of Insulin for diabetes treatment

Short acting insulin. Eg- regular (Humulin R, Novoli N)
Long acting insulin. Eg- Ultralintel (Humilin U).
Combination therapy. Eg- NPH/regular 50/50 (Humulin 50/50).
Rapidly acting insulin. Eg- Lispro (Humalog), Aspart (Novolog).

Drug Therapy for Diabetes treatment

Sulfonylureas : Since 1950 these are widely used anti diabetic drugs. Sulfonylureas are of 2 types’ first generation and second generation are commonly used drugs for diabetes treatment. Eg-Orinase, Dymelor.

Maglitinides : These drugs increase insulin production from the pancreas. And before administration of maglitinides the patient should be advised to take it 30 min before each meal for successful diabetes treatment.

Biguanides : These primarily action of these drugs include, these drugs reduce glucose production by the liver, and it also enhance the insulin sensitivity at the tissue level. Eg- Metformin, Glucovance.

Alfa Glucosidase inhibitors: Also known as “stomach blocker”. These work by slowing down the absorption of carbohydrate in the small intestine. These taken with the first bite of each meal, they are more effective in lowering post-prandial blood glucose in diabetes treatment.  Eg- Glyset, Precose.

Thiazolidinediones: “insulin sensitizers”. Eg- Pioglitazone (Actos). Rosiglitol (Glyset). Other drugs used for diabetes treatment which affects Blood Glucose Levels are : these drugs involve both Glucose-Lowering effect ( acetaminophen, allopurinol, Biguanides) and Glucose-Raising Effect (acetazolamide, Alcohol, Arginine etc)

4) Monitoring of Blood Glucose for diabetes treatment  

It is the self monitoring of the glucose in the urine. This procedure was used  in the past. The draw back of this diabetes treatment is, it does not provide current blood glucose level.In the hospital portable glucose meters are used to check the blood glucose level. This gives more quick results, hence it is most preferably used in the hospitals for diabetes treatment.

5) Pancreas Transplantation for diabetes treatment

: This procedure for diabetes treatment is used as the treatment of the option for patients with types I diabetes mellitus. Who have end-stage renal disease.

Indication for the patients who do not have renal failure : a history of frequent, acute, and severe metabolic complications. Eg- Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Ketoacidosis.
Clinical and emotional problem with exogenous insulin therapy those are as severe as to be incapacitating.
Consistent failure of insulin-based management to prevent acute complications.