Prostate cancer treatment: surgery

Prostate cancer treatment:

Prostate cancer is the most commonly seen cancer in the old men.  Most of prostate cancer are treated with surgery and prostate surgery has made easy the life of patients . Most of the men with cancer can live normal life and don’t show symptoms for entire life span. Studies have shown that most of the men live normally even with prostate cancer but of mild in nature.

Prostate surgery is done to remove the prostate or cancer cells of prostate. surgery may be done to remove and test lymph nodes in surrounding area and  to visualize  if  the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues. Prostate surgery is done to correct urinary problems that are because of  tumor pressing on the urethra.

Prostate surgery is done on the basis of stage of prostate cancer, age of person, and general health of that person. Treatment for prostate cancer is surgery.

Prostate cancer surgery choices are:-

  • Radical prostatectomy : is a surgical procedure to remove whole prostate and surrounding tissue having cancer cells. It is an open surgery  in which large incision is made in lower abdomen.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is done passing a tiny camera inside the cavity and special instruments to remove the cancer prostate.  lymph nodes around the prostate are also removed as they have signs of cancer and may spread to other parts of the body. Sampling of lymph nodes is called as lymph node biopsy. Laparoscopic surgery has become the famous treatment for prostate cancer.
  • Removal of prostate can cause erection problems and urinary bladder problems. but after prostate surgery most of men get relief from these problems.
  • Complete relief from symptoms of prostate cancer is possible with prostate cancer surgery. Treatment of prostate cancer or cure is effectively possible with surgery and medical treatment of prostate cancer may just relieve the symptoms.

Urinalysis Urine drug test Urine protein test Proteinurea


Urine test or urine analysis is the assessment of urine nature, colour, glucose in urine, passing urine test for various diagnostic procedure.

Different components of urine are measured for diagnosis of various urinary disorders. Urine test is done for urine analysis of protein, glucose, etc..

Urine protein test : Urine analysis for protein is called urine protein test. protein in urine is found with excessive work, urinary tract infection etc. Protein in urine is caused as proteinurea.

Urine drug test : Identifying drug elimination and drug concentration in uire is called Urine drug test.

passing urine test : Urine passing and collecting should be hygienic, and should not be contaminated. Contaminated urine can alter the test result.

Glucose urine test : Glucose in urine is found in diabetic patients. Normally urine glucose test is negative.

Pregnancy urine test : HCG – Humun chorionic gonadotrophin is present in urine during pregnancy. Pregnancy urine test is the easy and most common to identify wether the mother is pregnant or not. Pregnancy urine test can be done in home using a strip available in medical shops or pharma.

Pass a urine test : Pass urine into a clean container to provide urine for diagnostic test.

Urine test results : Result can be obtained very soon. Microscopic examination may be dalayed by some hours. Pregnancy urine test results are very fast and can get results in some minutes.

Cocaine urine test : This test is done for identification of cocaine in urine. The result is possitive in narcotic drug abused individuals.

Polyurea : Excess passing of urine is called as polyurea. poluurea is the main symptom of diabetes mellites.

Glucose urea : Urine with glucose is called as Glucose urea and is also sign of diabetes.

Best urine test : Urine test is best for diagnosing many disorders of urinary system.

Buy urine test : The strips used for glucose test and pregnancy test also gives correct result and patients can buy urine test strips.

Urinalysis is the assessment of urine colour, odour, urine glucose test, ketone bodies, red blood cells in urine, White blood cells in urine, Drak urine are analysed during Urinalysis. Nephritis, glomerulonephritis, Kidney infection, Pyelonephritis, in all these diseases urinalysis is done for diagnosis of disease condition.

Urine concentration is increased during

  • Dehydration
  • Excessive sweating
  • Heavy exercise or sweating
  • Oliguria,
  • Diarrhea,
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Vomiting
  • Starvation etc.

When urine concentration is increased the colour of urine becomes dark and specific gravity of urine may go up. Incresed concentration may lead to acidic urine.

Gross hematuria : causes, symptoms, treatment

Gross hematuria

Gross hematuria

Gross hematuria, is the presence of plenty of red blood cells in the urine as the red blood cells can be seen in naked eyes. presence of red blood cells in urine is known as Hematuria on medical term.

Gross hematuria is contrast to microscopic hematuria in which blood is visible only under a microscope. Gross hematuria an urinary abnormality, should be diagnosed earlier and treated properly. Gross hematuria may associated with pain or without pain. Infections and stones in the urinary tract are the common cause of Gross hematuria with pain. Painless hematuria also has many causes. Appearance of blood only time in urine may not be a serious disorder. Even a Strenuous exercise, Drugs such as aspirin also causes blood in urine.

Causes of Gross hematuria

Beeturia :- blood in urine seen after the ingestion of beetroot is called beeturia. Is not a disorder and is caused due to excretion of betalain reddish pigment.

Red blood cells enters the urine from glomerulus while blood is filtered in the glomerulus apparatus. Abnormality by the glomerulus to filter blood leads to red blood cells in the urine.

  • Inflammation of bladder or prostate,
  • Rupture in the urethra,
  • injury to urinary bladder,
  • Presence of polyp or tumor in the urinary tract,
  • Malignant tumors,
  • Kidney or ureter stones,
  • Enlarged prostate,
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Inherited diseases,
  • Injury to kidney, etc

Symptoms of gross hematuria

  • Visible red blood cells in the urine,
  • Red or brown colour urine,
  • Painful urination with red blood cells,
  • May be associated other disorders.

Treatment of Gross hematuria

Treating the underlying cause is the main treatment. If urinary tract infection is present, antibiotics are prescribed. Any abnormality of glomerulus or Kidney diseases should be treated. 

White blood cells urine : causes, diagnosis, urine tests, treatment

White blood cells urine

White blood cells urine

An inflammation of kidneys or urinary bladder leads to presence of blood cells in the urine. Presence of foreign bodies, stones, immune disorders, Tumor or mass in the urinary tract, and allergy to some substances may cause white blood cells in urine. An internal injury or hemorrhage in the genitourinary system also causes blood in urine, may be white blood cells or red blood cells. Even a healthy individual may also have one to three white blood cells or red blood cells in urine, without any infection.

Usually white blood cells are accumulated in the body where an infection is present, to fight with micro organisms which causes disease or infection. So in most of the cases presence of urinary tract infection is the main cause of white blood cells in urine. The pus at the site of infection at any where in the body is formed due to collection of white blood cells to infected area.

The infected individual usually doesn’t complaint that they have blood cells in urine. The blood cells in urine may not be seen to naked eyes, but can be observed with naked eyes in gross hematuria. After clinical examination of urine only the protein or blood cells, or microorganisms present is urine are observed.

Causes of white blood cells in urine

  • Cystitis : infection of bladder,
  • Kidney infection,
  • Infection of genitourinary tract,
  • Trauma or injury to urinary tract,
  • Post surgical infection,
  • Medications used to treat arthritis, etc
  • Are the main causes of blood cells in urine.

Urine test / diagnosis for blood cells

Urine sample is collected from the infected individual and urine should be collected in a clean container as per doctors advice.

Collected urine is send to medical laboratory for urine culture test and to identify presence of any microorganisms. If the organism is identified correctly, the correct antibiotic is used to treat urinary tract infection.

Kidney X-ray is also performed to identify the any infection to kidney.

Cystoscopy the direct visualization of urinary bladder is done using cystoscope.

Leukocyte esterase : test shows presence of white blood cells in urine.

Electron microscope, and some other chemicals are used for diagnosis of urine.

Treatment of white blood cells in urine

Treatment is given on the basis of cause of infection or disease. Cephalosporins are the antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infection. Adequate rest is essential for treating urinary tract infection.  Follow up the medications and doctors suggestions. If any sever complaints such as painful micturition, dark yellow urine, urinary incontinence, you can complaint to the doctor.

Urine test, Urinalysis, Indication diagnosis Urine test

Urine test

Urine test is the medical procedure conducted to test urine glucose, infection of urinary tract, and to identify presence of blood cells, protein or micro organisms in the Urine. Urine test is one of the important diagnostic test performed to diagnose urinary tract infection, and diseases of urinary tract. Urine test is also called as Urinalysis.

Urine test is benificial in diagnosing wide range of diseases. Urine strips are also used for urine test and colour change gives the expected result. Urine strip is dipped in the urine and abnormal products in urine such as sugar, blood cells and protein are identified. Home pregnancy test is usually conducted as Urine pregnancy test using a pregnancy strip, to which a drop of urine is placed. The presence of humun chorionic gonadotrophin in urine changes colour and pregnancy can diagnosed very easily.

Indications of Urine test

In Suspected following cases urine test is done.

  • Cystitis,
  • Urinary tract infection,
  • post surgical patient,
  • Nephritis,
  • Nephrotic syndrome,
  • Kidney infection etc…

Collection of sterile urine for the test is important and the patient undergoing test should get an idea how to collect sterile urine. In some cases mid stream urine is need to be collected. So medical person shold explain how to collect midstream urine.

Following are main Urine tests / test

Urine colour and appearance : diet, medicines and some diseases may change urine colour. Appearence or clarity of urine is normally clear.

Odor : normally has no odor or slight nutty odor. Unpleasant smell is found with some infection or diseases. Friuty smell indicates diabetic ketoacidosis.

Specific gravity of Urine : normal range is 1.010 to 1.030. Ion concentration of urine is found in specific gravity. ketoacidosis or presence of some protein in urine elevates specific gravity.

PH – 4.8 to 7.5 is normal : Different Ph such as acidic and alkalic have a role in kidney stone formation with abnormal Ph.

Polyurea : Urine is collected and measured. Is the common symptom of Diabetes mellitus.

Protien : Normally no Protiens present, albumin is common with any abnormality. Fever, hard exercise, pregnancy, and kidney diseases may cause preoteinurea.

Ketone bodies : Negative in normality. Starvetion and diabetic ketoacidosis causes ketone bodies in urine.

Glucose : negative is normal. Glucoseurea is symptom of Diabetes.



Red blood cells : Injury to kidney, bladder or part of urinary tract, injury during any procedure such as urinary catheterization, infection causes Red blood cells in urine.

White blood cells : Infection through urinary tract, or kidney diseases leads to white blodd cells in urine.

HCG : Humun chorionic gonadotrophin, noramally absent. This harmone is found in urine when mother becomes pregnant. Are main urine test.

Microscopic urine test / examination

Is done for identification of bacteria or infective agents,

  • To identify urinary casts,
  • To check crystals in urine,
  • Squamose cells,
  • Blood cells in urine,
  • Yeast cells or parasites in urine
  • Are diagnosed using Microscopic urine test.

Incontinence, Incontinence Products, Urinary Incontinence

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the uncontrolled, involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder. The bladder has a contractive muscles called detrusor muscles. These muscles contraction leads to induce the urinary urge. The abnormality of bladder due to aging or other disease leads to invonluntary leakage of urine form the bladder.

Causes of urinary incontinence

Anatomical or physiological factors which alters the urinary bladder causes Urinary incontinence.

Aging : The weakening of bladder associated with aging leads to urinary incontinence in some old age people and never all.

Injury to spinal cord : Neural damage to spinal cord loses the ability to control neural impulses which pases to bladder. This loss of neurological controle to urinary bladder leads to urinary incontinence.

Menopause and weakned pelvic muscles in women may cause Urinary incontinence.

prostate surgery : in the males leads to urinary incontinence.

Caffeine, or medications, such as cold medications also causes temporary urinary incontinence.

Urinary Incontinence in oldage

Incontinence or Urinary incontinence is common in oldage people. Due to aging process urinary bladder loses it’s capacity to regulate contraction and relaxation of bladder. This abnormality leads to leakage of urine.

Inability to controle urinary urge, i.e. the person can’t hold the urine untill he reach to toilet, is also termed as Urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence troubles lot in the night.

Urinary incontinence in women

Usually the normal individuals can hold the urine 3 to 4 hours. while the bladder loses it’s ability to controle, the urine starts to leak involuntarily. Womens are more sufferers from urinary incontinence, as they undergo changes such as aging, child bearing, menopause, etc. These physiological changes in women leads to urinary bladder weakness or bladder abnormality. so womens are more prone to have urinary incontinence after the age of 45 years. Most of the womens neglect the urinary incontinence and won’t get treatment at all. Only some womens go for treatment.

Types of urinary incontinence

Stress incontinence : Increased abdominal pressure, over stress associated with phobia, and loss of urine during physical activity are related to stress incontinence.

Overflow incontinence : Constant dribbling of urine occures and bladder is not emptied fully.

Urge incontinence : When the bladder fills beyond the limit, the urine starts to leak and there is urgent need to void invontarily is called overflow incontinence.

Acute and Temporary urinary incontinence is caused by

  • Child birth,
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Post surgical days
  • Panic or phobias
  • Medication side effect
  • Limited mobility

Chronic incontinence is caused byBladder muscle weaknessBlocked urethra ( due to BPH – benign prostatic hyperplasia)Neurological disorderBirth defectsWeakness of pelvic flore musclesInjury to brain or spinal cordUrethral prolapse

Don’t neglect the urinary incontinence and get the proper pharmacological treatment.

Urinary tract infection : symptoms in male and female

Urinary tract infection

The urinary tract is one of the important system of body and  purifies the blood removes liquid wastes. Women have more chance to get  bacterial urinary tract infection because of easy entering of bacteria through the short urethra.

Urinary tract infection symptoms

Urinary tract infection symptoms include a strong urge to urinate,  sharp pain follows soon after urination or men or women will feel burning sensation in the urethra after urine is released from urinary bladder.  Urinary tract infection men passes urine frequently and in small quantity.

Urinary tract infection men always feels like urine is coming through urethra and pain is more common in men compared to urinary tract infection in women. Bladder infection is the commonly occurring urinary tract infection. The Urinary tract infection men will pass urine more than six times a day with feeling of discomfort and have urinary tract infection symptom.

Urinary bladder is commonly infected urinary tract and the bladder infection spreads to kidney through ureters as the  bacteria enters the ureters and transmits infection.

symptoms of a urinary tract infection with bladder and kidney infection are as follows.  lower tract infection may be mild but upper urinary tract infections are complicated.

List of Symptoms of a urinary tract infection

  • Frequent urination : An urge to pass urine often and often,
  • Nocturia : urge to urinate during  night.
  • Urethritis :  Discomfort or pain because of inflammation of urethral meatus, or a burning sensation throughout the urethra while passing urine.
  • pain in  supra pubic region
  • pyuria : presence of Pus cells in urine
  • Hematuria : presence of red blood cells in urine.
  • Cloudy and foul-smelling urine on observation after storing for some minutes.
  • Proteinuria : presence of albumin and proteins in urine,
  • The symptoms of kidney Urinary tract infection are
  • low  back pain,
  • recurring chills,
  • fever with mild to moderate temperature,
  • nausea, and vomiting may occur,

The symptoms of upper urinary tract infection are always associated with lower  urinary tract infection symptoms.

Proper diagnosis is needed to identify the cause of infection and to distinguish various symptoms, as some symptoms can also caused by other problems like infections of the vulva. The physician can make the distinction and make a correct diagnosis of disease.

urinary tract infection symptom are different from person to person as the severity of infection and the extent of inflammation or disease.

Cephalosporin is the important urinary tract infection antibiotic, and success rate of treating urinary tract infection  is high with use of antibiotics. Antipyretics and analgesics are also administered to treat fever and pain.

Urinary tract infection prevention is important to prevent damage to urinary structures and to prevent symptoms.

male urinary tract infection is less as compared to women. Women are more prone to have urinary tract infection.

Kidney failure : symptoms, kidney disease Treatment

Kidney failure

Kidneys have the important  role of purifying blood and maintains water and electrolyte balance. Symptoms of kidney failure vary from person to person as per the severity of kidney damage or inability of kidneys to filter blood. The most cases of kidney failure are identified in the later stages, when kidney disease symptoms becomes severe. Significant decrease in the urine production is the main symptoms of kidney failure. Water and electrolyte balance is mainly altered and is the main symptoms of kidney failure.

In the beginning  symptoms of kidney failure  are asymptomatic, later as the kidney function decreases, symptoms of kidney failure  are manifested as decreased urinary output, fatigue, flank pain, etc.

Oliguria is the term used for urine production less than 400 ml per 24 hrs. In chronic kidney failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops slowly and gradually progressed. But in case of acute renal failure the symptoms of kidney failure develops fast. In both acute and chronic renal failure, the symptoms of kidney failure indicates immediate treatment is needed to prevent complications.

Main symptoms of kidney failure 

1.  Urinary changes,

2.  Swelling or edema,

3.  Fatigue,

4.  Itching and Skin  rashes ,

5.  Metabolic acidosis

6.  Arrhythmias

7.  Shortness of breath

8 . Metallic taste in mouth

1. Urinary changes

  • Decreased urinary output,
  • Dark coloured urine,
  • Painful micturition,
  • Foamy or bubbly urine passing,
  • Blood cells in the urine,
  • Increased effort for urination.

2. Swelling or edema

The increased nitrogenous wastes in the body formed because of inability of kidney to remove body metabolic wastes leads to water retention and causes  swelling or edema of legs, ankles, feet, face etc. Generalised edema also occurs. Electrolytes impairment by the kidney also leads to edema, is one of the  kidney disease symptoms.

3. Fatigue and Weakness

Kidney failure leads to less production of hormone erythropoietin, the hormone which stimulates production of red blood cells in the body. The decreased hormone production by the Kidneys causes low RBC production and while causes anemia. Anemia is symptomized by generalized weakness and fatigue. This symptoms of kidney failure is develops in chronic kidney failure.

4. Itching and Skin  rashes

are the symptoms of kidney failure occurs because of increased uric acid and elevated nitrogenous wastes in the body, which buildup of wastes in the blood  and causes Itching and Skin  rashes. These symptoms of kidney failure are developed with kidney functions decreased significantly.

5. Metabolic acidosis

Increased acidity is one of symptom of kidney failure. When kidney becomes unable maintain normal  bicarbonate level in body  causes metabolic acidosis.

6. Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia are the abnormal conduction of electric impulses of the heart  is caused due to Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is the term used to indicate elevated  level of potassium in the body. Potassium level is increased in body when kidney kidney fails to excrete excess potassium through nephrons.

7. Shortness of breath

is the symptoms of kidney failure seen when fluid accumulation occurs in lungs, called pulmonary edema. The decreased kidney function leads to fluid and water retention causes shortness of breath with pulmonary edema.

8. Metallic taste in mouth

is the minor kidney disease symptoms formed as increased wastes in the blood  causes bad breath. The metallic taste is also felt by the patient of kidney failure. This makes individual not to take food. This kidney disease symptoms is associated with most of renal disorders.

Minor symptoms of kidney failure are

Nausea and vomiting is also related to bad breath and metallic taste in mouth. Loss of appetite also occurs as the nitrogenous wastes accumulates in the body.

Pain in the lower back is a kidney pain, is the later symptoms of kidney failure. This pain is also called flank pain. Low back pain is the kidney disease symptoms seen with cystic disease of kidney, kidney tumor, poly-cystic kidney disease, etc.

Coldness of extremities due to decreased blood supply and anemia.

Dizziness and uneasiness are minor symptoms of kidney failure. This is because the brain receives less oxygenated blood and severe anemia. These are the minor symptoms of kidney failure.


Treatment of  underlying cause of kidney failure is important to restore the function of kidney.

Diuretics are given to reduce ankle edema. Immediate diagnosis of kidney failure helps in selecting treatment option as per need of patient and severity of kidney failure.

Dialysis is the emergency treatment for purifying blood and to remove breakdown products of amino-acid from the body.