Diabetes Mellitus is a multi system disease related to abnormal insulin production, impaired insulin utilization, or both. It is a serious health problem throughout the world. Factors that cause diabetes mellitus are as follows: age, hereditary, nutrition, pancreatic disorders etc. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are the two types of diabetes and diabetes treatment has lesson the symptoms and relieved from developing complications.
1) Nutritional Therapy
Nutritional therapy is the most important step to treat Diabetes Mellitus. The measure steps involved in nutritional therapy is to avoiding high sugar containing foods.
Nutritional therapy For Type-1 Diabetes Treatment
- Calories- to decrease the body weight and restoring the body tissues help in achieving sugar level in control in diabetes patients.
- Diet and insulin therapy both helps in the control of blood sugar in diabetes patients.
- Avoid over intake of glucose by diabetes individual.
- Flexibility should be avoided in the insulin treatment for diabetes treatment.
- Moderate physical activities along with the 20 g/hr of Carbohydrates should be maintained for diabetes treatment.
- Should include more intake of green leafy vegetables in their daily meals and fruits that have low sugar content should be taken.
Nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes
- Caloric intake should be reduced in over weight or obese patients, as an effective diabetes treatment.
- Diet alone can sufficiently control blood glucose level.
- Weight should be reduced to prevent development of Diabetes for success of diabetes treatment.
- Avoid bed time snacks.
- If the patient is in insulin or sulfonylureas diabetes treatment, it is necessary to be in nutritional supplement for exercise programs.
- Alcohol should be avoided because it is high in calories, has no nutritive value, and alcohol also promotes hypertriglyceridemia.
- High fat contained foods are strictly avoided.
- More carbohydrate foods should be included in diet along with the protein and very less fat in food.
- Carbohydrates decreases the absorption of other foods, hence prevent the hyperglycemic state in the patient.
- High fiber diet decreases the fat absorption in the gastrointestinal track.
- Artificial sweeteners should be avoided and all above are the nutritional diabetes treatment methods.
2) EXERCISE -Diabetes treatment
Exercise decreases the blood glucose level by, increasing the glucose uptake by the body muscles and improving the utilization of the insulin by the body tissues. And also decreases the cardiovascular risk factors, by maintaining the balance in the blood i.e, exercise increases the high-density lipoproteins and decreases the amount of low-density lipoprotein in the blood, and hence it alter the blood lipid level. So exercise is an effective method of diabetes treatment. Exercise also improves the feeling of well being and reduces the emotional stress in diabetic patient.
Exercise should be done preferably at the same time daily and in the same amount each day. Walking is safe and beneficial form of exercise in most of the patient as diabetes treatment and it does not require any special precautions to be taken. It is important to increase the exercise gradually is recommended. Vigorous exercises in diabetes treatment is avoided because it is not safe, vigorous exercise increases the blood glucose rapidly, that may lead to diabetes complication. It is better to the exercises after having meals, when the blood glucose rises. It is also important to monitor the blood glucose level during and as well after and before the exercise you begin. Exercises are best diabetes treatment method.
- A precaution that to be taken in exercise therapy for diabetes treatment includes
- Appropriate use of foot wears and other protective equipments.
- Exercise should be avoided in an extreme heat or cold.
- Daily inspection of feet is done by diabetic patient during diabetes treatment.
- Exercise should be avoided during the periods of metabolic rate, for diabetes treatment.
3) Pharmacological therapy – Diabetes treatment
Insulin therapy: insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, which maintain the normal blood glucose level by increasing glucose transport and glucose absorption by the body tissues. Insulin is available in various forms for example Humulin R. lispro, linte, glargine, NPH etc. Insulin therapy is the effective diabetes treatment.
Types of Insulin for diabetes treatment
Short acting insulin. Eg- regular (Humulin R, Novoli N)
Long acting insulin. Eg- Ultralintel (Humilin U).
Combination therapy. Eg- NPH/regular 50/50 (Humulin 50/50).
Rapidly acting insulin. Eg- Lispro (Humalog), Aspart (Novolog).
Drug Therapy for Diabetes treatment
Sulfonylureas : Since 1950 these are widely used anti diabetic drugs. Sulfonylureas are of 2 types’ first generation and second generation are commonly used drugs for diabetes treatment. Eg-Orinase, Dymelor.
Maglitinides : These drugs increase insulin production from the pancreas. And before administration of maglitinides the patient should be advised to take it 30 min before each meal for successful diabetes treatment.
Biguanides : These primarily action of these drugs include, these drugs reduce glucose production by the liver, and it also enhance the insulin sensitivity at the tissue level. Eg- Metformin, Glucovance.
Alfa Glucosidase inhibitors: Also known as “stomach blocker”. These work by slowing down the absorption of carbohydrate in the small intestine. These taken with the first bite of each meal, they are more effective in lowering post-prandial blood glucose in diabetes treatment. Eg- Glyset, Precose.
Thiazolidinediones: “insulin sensitizers”. Eg- Pioglitazone (Actos). Rosiglitol (Glyset). Other drugs used for diabetes treatment which affects Blood Glucose Levels are : these drugs involve both Glucose-Lowering effect ( acetaminophen, allopurinol, Biguanides) and Glucose-Raising Effect (acetazolamide, Alcohol, Arginine etc)
4) Monitoring of Blood Glucose for diabetes treatment
It is the self monitoring of the glucose in the urine. This procedure was used in the past. The draw back of this diabetes treatment is, it does not provide current blood glucose level.In the hospital portable glucose meters are used to check the blood glucose level. This gives more quick results, hence it is most preferably used in the hospitals for diabetes treatment.
5) Pancreas Transplantation for diabetes treatment
: This procedure for diabetes treatment is used as the treatment of the option for patients with types I diabetes mellitus. Who have end-stage renal disease.
Indication for the patients who do not have renal failure : a history of frequent, acute, and severe metabolic complications. Eg- Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Ketoacidosis.
Clinical and emotional problem with exogenous insulin therapy those are as severe as to be incapacitating.
Consistent failure of insulin-based management to prevent acute complications.