Hemoglobin is the specialized protein rich in iron, present in the red blood cells, and helps in transporting respiratory gases. The presence of Hemoglobin gives red colour to blood. The normal hemoglobin level in body is 14 to 17 gm/dl in males and 10.8 to 16 gm /dl in females. The hemoglobin count for newborns is higher than elder ones i.e. 17-24 gm/dl.
Now a days hemoglobin count is done using machines, which are used for blood test. In the machine red blood cells are broken down and hemoglobin is exposed. With chemical mechanisms the hemoglobin count is done.
Hemoglobin is made up of four globular protein subunits are attached by protein bond. Proteins in the hemoglobin attracts oxygen from alveoli of lungs. Combining with oxygenated blood oxyhemoglobin is formed and it travels entire bloodstream. The oxygen is carried to distant parts of body and delivered at tissue level. At tissue level, hemoglobin absorbs the carbon dioxide and forms carboxyhemoglobin is carried to lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide.
Low hemoglobin count
The reduced hemoglobin level than normal range is called as low hemoglobin, and low hemoglobin count indicates a low red blood cell count is called as Anemia. The low hemoglobin level indicates nutritional deficiency. Weakness and fatigue are the main symptoms of low hemoglobin level. Individuals with other systemic diseases have risk of low hemoglobin count. Immediate medical care is needed to prevent tissue hypoxia and other complications.
The causes of low hemoglobin count or anemia
- Loss of blood during traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer etc.
- Nutritional deficiency (iron, vitamin B12, folate deficiency),
- Bone marrow diseases
- Abnormal hemoglobin such sickle cell anemia.
- Iron and folic acid deficiencies,
- Vitamin deficiencies
- Erythropoietin deficiency
- Red blood cells destruction with blood transfusion
- Severe blood loss
- Hypothyroidism, and deficiency of testosterone hormone
- kidney failure, cancer, Crohn’s disease and other Chronic diseases,
- Autoimmune diseases,
- lead poisoning
- chemotherapy and
- use of certain medications,
High hemoglobin count
Hemoglobin count is said to be high when hemoglobin count is above-average level in blood. Increased hemoglobin count more than 18 grams per deciliter of blood for men and 16 g/dl for women is called high hemoglobin count. The number of red blood cells may be normal but the hemoglobin count may be raised in some cases.
Hemoglobin is the vital component of red blood cells. Hemoglobin has oxygen-carrying capacity, transports oxygenated blood from lungs to tissues and deoxygenated blood from tissues to lungs. If the Hemoglobin count decreases, blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity also decreases. The tissues receives less oxygen and severe reduction of Hemoglobin count leads to tissue hypoxia.
High hemoglobin count indications
- Congenital heart diseases
- Cor pulmonale
- Pulmonary fibrosis
- Increased RBC formation etc..