Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis : causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Inflammation of Lung, due to hypersensitivity to dust or pollen inhalation is called as Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. Hypersensitivity reaction is because of body’s resistance fights against foreign body such as pollen, dust, fungus etc. Sudden hypersensitivity within 12 to 18 hours of exposure to dust or foreign material is called Acute hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.

Causes of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis occurs commonly at work place due to exposure to dust, fungus, or molds. Farmers are at high risk of getting hypersensitivity due to exposure to dust and pollens. Exposure to agricultural dust or other occupational dust leads to Lung diseases. If not treated, hypersensitivity Pneumonia turns to Chronic lung disease.

Exposure to bird dust, occupational dust such as cement factory workers, Inhaling fungus in the environment, air conditioner in the home etc causes Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Symptoms of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Fever,
  • chills,
  • cough, ( dry cough )
  • Throat irritation,
  • Chest tightness,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • loss of appetite,
  • Weight loss,
  • Discomfort in the respiratory tract,

Diagnosis of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Chest X – Ray is the diagnostic test performed to identify hypersensitivity. Diffused small nodules are found in the X- Ray sheet.
  • Pulmonary function tests,
  • Complete blood count,
  • Bronchoscopy,
  • Biopsy may be done,
  • Hgh resolution CT – Scan shows the affected area of lung.

Who may get Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Farmers works with dust,
Pigeon breeders, from feather dust,
Sauna takers,
Mushroom growers, get from moldy compost, etc

Treatment of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

Identifying the allergic materials and avoiding them is better way of treating this. Using protective masks at work place is also advised.

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