Prostate cancer surgery, Treatment for prostate cancer

Prostate cancer surgery

Prostate cancer is most commonly seen cancer in the older men. Most of Prostate cancer are treated with surgery and prostate suregery has made easy the life of patients with prostate cancer. Most of the men with cancer can live normal life and doesn’t show any symptoms for entire life span. Studies have shown that most of men live normally even with prostate cancer but of mild in nature.

Prostate surgery is done to remove the prostate or cancer cells of prostate. surgery may be done to remove and test lymph nodes in surrounding area and  to visualize  if  the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues. Prostate surgery is done to correct urinary problems that are because of  tumor pressing on the urethra.

Prostate surgery is done on the basis of stage of prostate cancer, age of person, and general health of man. Treatment for prostate cancer is surgery.

Prostate cancer surgery choices are

Radical prostatectomy : is a surgical procedure to remove whole prostate and surrounding tissue have cancer cells. It is an open surgery, in which large incision is made in lower abdomen or laporoscopic surgery is done with small incisions.

Laparoscopic surgery is done passing a tiny camera inside the cavity and special instruments to remove the cancer prostate.  lymph nodes around the prostate are also removed as they have signs of cancer and spreads to other parts of body. Sampling of lympnodes is calles as lymph node biopsy. Laparoscopic surgery has become the important Treatment for prostate cancer.

Removal of prostate can cause erection problems and urinary bladder problems. but after proatate surgery most of men get relief from these problems.

Surgery may completely remove the prostate cancer or surrounding tissues also on the basis of cancer has spread beyond the prostate or not. Complete relief from symptoms of prostate cancer is possible with prostate cancer surgery. Treatment of Prostate cancer or cure is effectively possible with surgery and medical treatment of prostate cancer may just relieve the symptoms.

Yeast infections: causes and treatment

Yeast infections

Yeast Infections

Yeast infections usually occurs, at the water retaining parts of the body. Yeast infections generally occur in areas like, mouth, underarms, hand and feet etc, The water retaining environment is the main cause of yeast infection. Everybody comes in contact with yeast, but some have resistance, and some persons who have less immunity will be infected with yeast. The moist, warm environment encourages yeast growth and causes yeast infection.

Yeast infections most commonly occurs in genital area. Because the area provides good environment for yeast growth. The moist warm area, at the genital area is more prone to yeast infection. By maintaining hygiene at this area, one can prevent yeast infection. Yeast infections can also occur at axilla, and between thighs.

Oral yeast infections commonly occurs in children. Infants who are bottle feeding can get oral yeast infection. Because the moist area around the bottle enhances yeast growth. The oral yeast infections are called as oral thrush.

Yeast infections also occur under the nails, if nails are kept moist and dirt.

Causes of Yeast Infection

  •   Unhygienic genital areas,
  •   Poor hygiene at water retaining areas such as hands, feet.
  •   Immune suppressing medications such as steroids,
  •   Using an uncleaned bottle causes yeast infection in children.
  •   Decreased resistance to infections,
  •   weak immunity,patients such as AIDS,

Treatment of Yeast Infections

  •   MICONAZOLE, CLOTRIMAZOLE, are the important medications used.
  •   Natural treatment is also available.

Bedsore Ulcer Causes , Bedsore Stage , Bedsore Treatment

Decubitus Ulcer

Bedsores are the skin lesions caused due to prolonged pressure resulting in the death of skin and dermatic tissue. Bedsores are also called as Pressure sores or pressure ulcers. Main cause of pressure sore is sitting or lying in the same position for prolonged time.

Mechanism Of Bedsore Development

When an individual stays on single position for prolonged time, the pressure is exerted between the body skin and the other surface such as Bed. The pressure cut offs the blood supply to particular area and leads to tissue damage of skin and underlying tissue, resulting in Bedsores, or pressure ulcer.

Bedsores are caused by number of factors such as prolonged pressure, friction, humidity in the skin, old age, wrinkled bed and friction, increased temperature, and bony prominences with less adipose tissue are at risk. Bedsores worsens the life of individuals if proper care is not taken.

Due to illness, when a single position is maintained for long time, pressure exerts between body skin and bed. Increased pressure creates a force which resists blood flow to that area. Decreased blood flow to particular area leads to cell death, so the skin tissue and underlying tissue damage occurs. This is called as bedsores, due prolonged stay on bed, or Pressure sore, because the sore is occurred due to excess pressure.

Causes of Bedsore

  • Various factors causes bedsores, such as
  • Staying on wheel chair or being bed ridden for long time,
  • Fragile skin
  • Reduced blood flow to skin in conditions such as diabetes and vascular disease,
  • Malnourishment leads to less adipose tissue and causes Bedsores,
  • Inability of person to get aware of skin lesions or irritation, in chronic conditions such as stroke, alzheimers disease,
  • Wrinkled skin in old age which undergoes pressure,
  • Urinary incontinence,
  • Bowel incontinence,
  • Poor hygiene and wrinkled bed, etc

Factors Causes Bedsore

Pressure :  Prolonged single position or decubitus, compresses the skin and underlying tissue between bony prominences of body and Bed. The pressure is exerted between bed and body skin. Increased pressure reduces blood flow to the area, decreases tissue perfusion, ischemia occurs and causes tissue necrosis i.e. Bedsores.

Sheer force : A force created between body skin, when patient in same position as a deep fascia and skeletal muscle slided down with gravity. Resistance developed by this force, reduces blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis, causes bedsore.

Friction : Friction occurs between body skin and bed while jerking the body on bed causes Bedsores.

Symptoms of Bedsores/ Pressure Ulcer

Stage 1 : Red patch is found on the skin, when pressed on patch, it doesn’t change to white. Is the starting stage of bedsore.

Stage 2 : Blisters are formed on the skin, later blisters may become open, red irritating area is found.

Stage 3 : sore or lesion is formed on the skin, even the underlying tissue damage occurs.

Stage 4 : Deep ulcer is formed along with damage to muscles and bone. Usually the bony prominences at joints are affected with bedsore or pressure ulcer.

Treatment of Bedsores

Group of health care team provides care to treat Bedsores.

Nurse places a major role in treating Bedsores.

Change the position of patient as the bedsore area get relief.

Dress the wound cleansing with betadine and other antibiotic solutions.

Improve the nutrition of patient,

If needed with doctors order administer the antibiotics.

Prevention of Bedsores

As we know prevention is better than cure, with proper health care Bedsore can be prevented.

Change the position of patient fro every two hours,

Bed should be soft and neat with no wrinkles,

Pressure reducing things such as pillows, sheepskin, foam padding and powders to be used to prevent bedsores.

Range of motion exercises are provided for immobile patients, daily.

Provide orange juice and Vitamin C rich food to enhance healing,

Provide special care for unconscious patients, patients with urinary and bowel incontinence

Cosmetic surgery: facts

  • Cosmetic surgery is the surgery conducted to repair the body part, which has deviation from normal structure and function. Cosmetic surgery aims in restoring the beauty of the person. After cosmetic surgery you look better and also makes you to feel better.
  • In these modern days, everybody likes to look nice and beautiful. Cosmetic surgery has helped number of people to have a good physical appearance.
  • Everybody likes to keep their physical appearance good, along with inner beauty of mind. To have definite body shape we will go for exercises, diet, etc. If some body part has a deviation from normal structure or function, COSMETIC SURGERY has become a boon to them.
  • The beauty after cosmetic surgery gives self – image to the person.
  • Cosmetic surgery provides the physical beauty and provides self confidence to the person.
  • Poor beauty may lead to lack of self image, but cosmetic surgery helps them.
  • Lack of good physical appearance leads to inferiority complex, while Cosmetic surgery aids to have good physical appearance.
  • Cosmetic surgery helps to mould the physical disfigurement of the body.
  • Cosmetic surgery helps in maintaining good physical shape and helps to maintain physical and emotional well being of person.
  • People can come out of worries such as they have worries with their face, nose, neck, waist, hair etc, with cosmetic surgery.
  • Cosmetic surgery provides good shape to body parts such as Face, Nose, Neck, Waist, hairs etc and makes the individual feel happy.

Urinary tract infection : symptoms in male and female

Urinary tract infection

The urinary tract is one of the important system of body and  purifies the blood removes liquid wastes. Women have more chance to get  bacterial urinary tract infection because of easy entering of bacteria through the short urethra.

Urinary tract infection symptoms

Urinary tract infection symptoms include a strong urge to urinate,  sharp pain follows soon after urination or men or women will feel burning sensation in the urethra after urine is released from urinary bladder.  Urinary tract infection men passes urine frequently and in small quantity.

Urinary tract infection men always feels like urine is coming through urethra and pain is more common in men compared to urinary tract infection in women. Bladder infection is the commonly occurring urinary tract infection. The Urinary tract infection men will pass urine more than six times a day with feeling of discomfort and have urinary tract infection symptom.

Urinary bladder is commonly infected urinary tract and the bladder infection spreads to kidney through ureters as the  bacteria enters the ureters and transmits infection.

symptoms of a urinary tract infection with bladder and kidney infection are as follows.  lower tract infection may be mild but upper urinary tract infections are complicated.

List of Symptoms of a urinary tract infection

  • Frequent urination : An urge to pass urine often and often,
  • Nocturia : urge to urinate during  night.
  • Urethritis :  Discomfort or pain because of inflammation of urethral meatus, or a burning sensation throughout the urethra while passing urine.
  • pain in  supra pubic region
  • pyuria : presence of Pus cells in urine
  • Hematuria : presence of red blood cells in urine.
  • Cloudy and foul-smelling urine on observation after storing for some minutes.
  • Proteinuria : presence of albumin and proteins in urine,
  • The symptoms of kidney Urinary tract infection are
  • low  back pain,
  • recurring chills,
  • fever with mild to moderate temperature,
  • nausea, and vomiting may occur,

The symptoms of upper urinary tract infection are always associated with lower  urinary tract infection symptoms.

Proper diagnosis is needed to identify the cause of infection and to distinguish various symptoms, as some symptoms can also caused by other problems like infections of the vulva. The physician can make the distinction and make a correct diagnosis of disease.

urinary tract infection symptom are different from person to person as the severity of infection and the extent of inflammation or disease.

Cephalosporin is the important urinary tract infection antibiotic, and success rate of treating urinary tract infection  is high with use of antibiotics. Antipyretics and analgesics are also administered to treat fever and pain.

Urinary tract infection prevention is important to prevent damage to urinary structures and to prevent symptoms.

male urinary tract infection is less as compared to women. Women are more prone to have urinary tract infection.

Kidney infection : Kidney Pain, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Kidney infection

Infection of the kidney with microorganism is called as kidney infection. Kidney infection is also called as pyelonephritis, is special type of upper urinary tract infection. The infection to kidney is passed to kidney through urethra, urinary bladder and ureter.

The main function of kidney is to purify the blood, Water absorption, maintains biochemical levels in the body and also regulates blood pressure through renin angiotensin system.

Urine is formed after filtration of blood and renal tubules helps in the absorption of different electrolytes and water.  The urine formed in the kidney is passed through ureters to the urinary bladder. From urinary bladder to urine is passed out with voluntary effort through urethra.

The infected bladder provides an opportunity for micro organisms to ascend into upper urinary tract and causes kidney infection. The infected kidney leads to kidney pain. Bacteria are the common micro organisms causes kidney infection. Sever kidney infection causes pus formation and kidney pain.

Diagnosis of Kidney infection

Diagnosis of kidney infection is made by urine test. The protein urea, passing pus cells or epithelial cells in the urine, confirms the kidney infection or urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are used to treat  kidney infection and analgesics to relieve kidney pain. Ultrasound scan shows any enlargement of kidney due to severe kidney infection.

Causes of kidney infection and kidney pain

The untreated lower urinary tract infection is the main cause of kidney infection. The untreated kidney infection leads to improper kidney function and even leads to kidney failure also.

  • Causes of kidney pain may of different origin.
  • abdominal surgeries,
  • urinary cauterization,
  • kidney biopsy,
  • Untreated kidney infection may cause kidney pain,
  • An external injury to kidney also causes kidney pain,
  • Presence of kidney stones leads to kidney pain. The kidney pain may be radiating and felt in the lower back region.

Symptoms of kidney infection

  • continued urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain while passing urine,
  • lower abdominal pain
  • urine is Cloudy in nature with  strong odour
  • Pus or red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
  • urinary retention
  • nocturia, passing urine during night
  • low Back pain, (kidney pain) or groin pain
  • fatigue, nausea and vomiting etc..

Treatment of kidney infection and kidney pain

Treatment of kidney infection is given with antibiotics. Give plenty of water to kidney infection person. To relieve kidney pain, analgesics are administered. The kidney pain is very complicated  and immediate diagnosis and treatment is needed with hospitalization.

Abrasions : skin damage , treatment , prevention


Abrasions are the damaged caused to the superficial layer of the skin. Abrasions commonly the sports injuries, occur due to fall on hard surface.  Because of fall the friction occurs between the skin and hard surface.  So the athletes are at high risk of falls and they will get abrasions.  Abrasion removes the superficial layer of the skin called epidermis, which provides elasticity to the skin.

An abrasions may cause very less bleeding or causes no bleeding.   Abrasion may be caused falls while bicycle riding even bike riding falls.

Treatment of Abrasions

Cleaning the wound with water and soap is the first step of treating abrasions.  Mild antibiotics can be applied on the abrasions.  The abrasion is cleaned with hydrogen peroxide, and covered with antibiotic ointment.  A dry bandage is applied with comfortable tightness.

Abrasion treating machine is also used to treat abrasions.  If abrasions are severe meet the physician to get treatment.

Prevention of abrasions

Wearing protective pads to the proned areas such as knee, elbow, helps in preventing abrasions in the athletes. Care to be taken to avoid falls, and first aid kit is beneficial to treat abrasions

Tetanus: infection, shot, dosage

Tetanus shots are given to prevent Tetanus . Tetanus shot is a vaccine of tetanus toxoid given against Tetanus disease. First tetanus toxoid vaccine was introduced in the year 1924. tetanus is also called as Lock jaw and is an acute infectious disease caused by clostridium tetani. The toxin is released after infection and affects the central nervous system. The body muscles becomes rigid specially neck and jaw movement becomes very rigid.

Clostridium tetani is found in soil and manure and also on human skin surface. The tetanus infection follows after an injury or wound to body part. The main way for Clostridium tetani to enter human blood stream is through wounds or injuries.

Tetanus infection occurs through

  • Any injuries causes bleeding from skin
  • Animal or human bites.
  • Dental infections and Ear infections
  • Pregnancy or abortion

Tetanus shots / tetanus vaccination

  • Soon after a injury, if you go for health care provider or doctor, he wash the wound will give Tetanus shots. Tetanus shots is a vaccination containing Tetanus toxoid, an antigenic material produces antibodies in the body against Clostridium tetani. These antibodies prevents tetanus infection in the body.
  • Usually tetanus shot, or vaccine is given in the childhood to prevent tetanus infection by improving the immunity of child against Tetanus or Clostridium tetani. Booster dose of tetanus shot should be taken to prevent tetanus infection. Now a days the disease has been markedly reduced because of proper immunization.
  • Tetanus shots are given to pregnant mothers in the second or third trimester to prevent incidence of tetanus in neonates. For children tetanus shots is given at the age of 10 years and after 6 months booster dose is given.

Vaccinations : immunity, vaccine types and merits

FDA also approves shingles vaccine. It is also known as Zostavax. Vaccination is the procedure of producing immunity to a particular disease by administrating antigenic material. Vaccination prevents the disease or an infection caused by the pathogens. vaccination is an effective method of producing immunity, preventing disease because of it’s power to produce immunity.

The vaccines administrated may be live (they can’t produce active immunization) obtained from pathogens such as bacteria or virus. Killed vaccines or inactivated antigenic material from the pathogens, may be purified material such as protein.

Before 200 BC itself inoculation against smallpox, the killing disease was introduced.

The word vaccination was first introduced in 1976 by Edward Jenner.

How the vaccinations prevent disease ?

All vaccines introduces antigenic material into the immune system of the body and stimulates antigen antibody reaction. As the antigenic material is unable to produce active infection, the antibodies are developed strongly against the particular antigenic material. The developed antibodies fight against the particular antigen in future and prevent infection and particular disease.

Types of Vaccinations

Inactivated vaccine

Consists of inactivated virus, which has been cultivated in the culture media and killed using formaldehyde or Heat. These viruses loses the capacity to replicate but can stimulate antibodies, because of it’s antigenic nature. The effective inactivation of virus doesn’t cause any infection, but weak inactivation can establish an infection in the body. Booster dose of vaccine is necessary, because the inactivated virus loses it’s antigenic property later.

Attenuated Vaccine

Very low virulence virus particles are included in attenuated vaccine. They reproduce very slowly, so they will produce their antigenic properties, and less often need of a booster dose.

Subunit Vaccine

A subunit of a pathogen is introduced as a vaccine and is capable of producing immunity by stimulating antibodies. The specific protein is extracted from the vaccine and is administered as Vaccine.

Labor induction : procedure and benefits

Labor induction

Artificial process of starting labour or stimulation of child delivery using medicines is called as Labor induction. Labour induction is done when labor is not started normally and the birth of baby has to be taken place in order to save life of both mother and baby.

Need for Labour induction

  • Post dated delivery more than two weeks, If labor is not induced the baby becomes large and it becomes a fatal condition.
  • When no uterine contractions started after rupture of membranes,
  • Maternal increased blood pressure or Eclampsia, or preeclampsia,
  • Infection of uterus and birth canal,
  • Pregnancy with Diabetes,
  • Less amniotic fluid around the baby.

In all these conditions labor induction is done by the doctor or obstetrician.

Procedure of Labor induction

Labor can be induced by different methods. Before induction of labor, the cervix is checked for softness or any dilation of cervix. If cervix is not open a medicine is placed in the cervix region. The medicine helps in softening and opening of cervix.

Rupture of amniotic sac is also done with the finger or with the help of amnihook and it also starts Labor. In some cases labor does not start even after the water comes out from the amniotic sac. The rupture of membranes may cause infection if proper hygienic methods are not taken.  Keen observation is done to take any measures to conduct delivery of the baby.

Oxytocin is the medicine given to induce the labor. Usually the medicine oxytocin is given through intravenous ( I V ) route. Strong and regular uterine contractions are started after the administration of Oxytocin.

When oxytocin fails to induce labor, the Caesarean section is done to take out the baby from the womb of mother.

Pitocin is given in some mothers to induce labor.