Placenta previa : causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment

Placenta previa

Placenta previa

Placenta previa is the pregnancy disorder characterised with improper placement of placenta in the lower uterus, covering the cervix completely
or partially. (placenta is the structure which nourishes the growing fetus)

One in 200 pregnancies will report placenta previa.


Three types of placenta previa

1. Complete placenta previa : Placenta completely covers the uterine mouth, and cervical OS.

2. Partial placenta previa : Cervix is partially covered by placenta.

3. Marginal placenta previa : Placenta marginally extends up-to cervix.


The causes of placenta previa

  • Abnormal placental formation,
  • Multiple pregnancy,
  • Abnormal uterus,
  • Scarred lining of the uterus.

Placenta previa commonly occurs in mothers who have

  • Fibroid uterus, or uterine surgery to remove fibroid,
  • Abnormal uterine development,
  • Increased number of pregnancies or Multi-parity.
  • Multiple pregnancy mother,
  • Scarring of uterine wall because of previous pregnancy, abortions, uterine surgery, or cesarean suction.


Diagnosis of placenta previa

The important diagnosis made for placenta is Ultrasound scanning. The scanning reports uterus is soft and relaxed, and in some cases the fetus may be mispositioned.


Symptoms of placenta previa

  • Sudden, painless, bleeding in the birth canal,
  • Usually Bleeding occurs at the end of second trimester.
  • Heavy bleeding occurs, and bleeding may stop itself.
  • Bleeding may recover after some days or a week.


Treatment of placenta previa:-

* If the previa is complete, absolute bed rest is necessary.
* When bleeding is severe intensive medical care is necessary.
* Monitor vital signs.
* After severe bleeding, blood transfusion is very important.
* Cesarean suction is needed for the delivery of baby, when mother have placenta previa.

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