Diabetes mellitus : Causes, Symptoms, Classification

Meaning of Diabetes

“Diabetes  is one of the chronic hormonal disorder in which the imbalance between the insulin secretion by the pancreas and glucose utilization by the body cells”.

As a metabolic disorder it has affected the millions of people entire the world. If once an individual got the diabetes  it is highly difficult to cure it completely but it can be managed effectively.

The pancreas secretes an hormone called insulin. And the glucose is obtained to the body by means of ingested food. the insulin helps in transport of glucose to the tissues.and it also helps in the utilization of glucose by the cells.

Concept of Diabetes

If the insulin secretion is decreased or the tissues are resistant to the insulin i.e. the tissues won’t utilize the insulin. In this condition there is an increased amount of glucose in the body, is known as hyperglycemia. it is the foremost symptom of diabetes .

Classification of Diabetes

On the basis of its nature diabetes  is classified as follows.

1. Type 1 diabetes 
: it is usually seen in children or in younger ones. in this type the insulin secretion is less than normal. Due to the decreased pancreatic insulin secretion, the glucose is not utilized by the body.the replacement of insulin is the treatment for this type.Type 1 diabetes  is seen in hereditary cases. if once it diagnosed life long therapy should be taken.

2.Type 2 diabetes : it is usually seen in adults. in this type there is a normal insulin production but the the tissues are resistant. the deficient uptake of insulin by the tissues leads to increased level of glucose in the blood. the type 2 usually occurs in obese persons. the oral hypoglycemic agents are used as treatment. it can be controlled effectively by medications,exercise, diet and other life style modifications.

3. Gestational diabetes : it occurs in pregnant women. with effective treatment it disappears after the child birth.

Causes of Diabetes

1. Hereditary causes

2. Obesity

3. Increased glyceride level

4. Increased cholesterol in body

5. Pancreatic disease

6. Sedentary life style

7. Sever mental stress

8. Idiopathic i.e. unknown.

Symptoms or signs of Type 1 DIABETES

1. THIRST : is due to increased glucose level in blood draws the water from the tissues. the tissues hydro insufficiency leads to thirst.

2. POLY UREA :when the person drinks the excess of water to compensate thirst, it leads to excess of urine output.


4. POLY PHAGIA : when the tissues doesn’t get sufficient energy, the person eats more.

5. GLUCOSE UREA : the excess of glucose in the blood is passed in the form of urine.

6. NAUSEA AND VOMITING : due to altered metabolism.

7. DEFICIENT HEALING OF WOUNDS : is due to lack of insulin, which helps in healing process.

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