Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Symptoms, Classification

Diabetes mellitus

Meaning of Diabetes

“Diabetes is one of the chronic hormonal disorders in which the imbalance between the insulin secretion by the pancreas and glucose utilization by the body cells”.

As a metabolic disorder, it has affected millions of people entire the world. If once an individual got diabetes it is highly difficult to cure it completely but it can be managed effectively.

The pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin. And the glucose is obtained to the body by means of ingested food. the insulin helps in the transport of glucose to the tissues and it also helps in the utilization of glucose by the cells.

Concept of Diabetes

If the insulin secretion is decreased or the tissues are resistant to the insulin i.e. the tissues won’t utilize the insulin. In this condition there is an increased amount of glucose in the body, is known as hyperglycemia. it is the foremost symptom of diabetes.

Classification of Diabetes

On the basis of its nature diabetes is classified as follows.

1. Type 1 diabetes: it is usually seen in children or in younger ones. in this type, the insulin secretion is less than normal. Due to the decreased pancreatic insulin secretion, glucose is not utilized by the body. the replacement of insulin is the treatment for this type. Type 1 diabetes is seen in hereditary cases. if once it diagnosed life long therapy should be taken.

2.Type 2 diabetes: it is usually seen in adults. in this type, there is a normal insulin production but the tissues are resistant. the deficient uptake of insulin by the tissues leads to an increased level of glucose in the blood. type 2 usually occurs in obese persons. the oral hypoglycemic agents are used as treatment. it can be controlled effectively by medications, exercise, diet and other lifestyle modifications.

3. Gestational diabetes: it occurs in pregnant women. with effective treatment, it disappears after childbirth.

Causes of Diabetes

1. Hereditary causes

2. Obesity

3. Increased glyceride level

4. Increased cholesterol in the body

5. Pancreatic disease

6. Sedentary lifestyle

7. Sever mental stress

8. Idiopathic i.e. unknown.

Symptoms or signs of Type 1 DIABETES

1. THIRST: is due to the increased glucose level in blood draws the water from the tissues. the tissues hydro insufficiency leads to thirst.

2. POLY UREA: when the person drinks the excess of water to compensate thirst, it leads to an excess of urine output.


4. POLY PHAGIA: when the tissues don’t get sufficient energy, the person eats more.

5. GLUCOSE UREA: the excess of glucose in the blood is passed in the form of urine.

6. NAUSEA AND VOMITING: due to altered metabolism.

7. DEFICIENT HEALING OF WOUNDS: is due to lack of insulin, which helps in the healing process.

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