Urine test is the medical procedure conducted to test urine glucose, infection of urinary tract, and to identify presence of blood cells, protein or micro organisms in the Urine. Urine test is one of the important diagnostic test performed to diagnose urinary tract infection, and diseases of urinary tract. Urine test is also called as Urinalysis.
Urine test is benificial in diagnosing wide range of diseases. Urine strips are also used for urine test and colour change gives the expected result. Urine strip is dipped in the urine and abnormal products in urine such as sugar, blood cells and protein are identified. Home pregnancy test is usually conducted as Urine pregnancy test using a pregnancy strip, to which a drop of urine is placed. The presence of humun chorionic gonadotrophin in urine changes colour and pregnancy can diagnosed very easily.
Indications of Urine test
In Suspected following cases urine test is done.
- Urinary tract infection,
- post surgical patient,
- Nephrotic syndrome,
- Kidney infection etc…
Collection of sterile urine for the test is important and the patient undergoing test should get an idea how to collect sterile urine. In some cases mid stream urine is need to be collected. So medical person shold explain how to collect midstream urine.
Following are main Urine tests / test
Urine colour and appearance : diet, medicines and some diseases may change urine colour. Appearence or clarity of urine is normally clear.
Odor : normally has no odor or slight nutty odor. Unpleasant smell is found with some infection or diseases. Friuty smell indicates diabetic ketoacidosis.
Specific gravity of Urine : normal range is 1.010 to 1.030. Ion concentration of urine is found in specific gravity. ketoacidosis or presence of some protein in urine elevates specific gravity.
PH – 4.8 to 7.5 is normal : Different Ph such as acidic and alkalic have a role in kidney stone formation with abnormal Ph.
Polyurea : Urine is collected and measured. Is the common symptom of Diabetes mellitus.
Protien : Normally no Protiens present, albumin is common with any abnormality. Fever, hard exercise, pregnancy, and kidney diseases may cause preoteinurea.
Ketone bodies : Negative in normality. Starvetion and diabetic ketoacidosis causes ketone bodies in urine.
Glucose : negative is normal. Glucoseurea is symptom of Diabetes.
Red blood cells : Injury to kidney, bladder or part of urinary tract, injury during any procedure such as urinary catheterization, infection causes Red blood cells in urine.
White blood cells : Infection through urinary tract, or kidney diseases leads to white blodd cells in urine.
HCG : Humun chorionic gonadotrophin, noramally absent. This harmone is found in urine when mother becomes pregnant. Are main urine test.
Microscopic urine test / examination
Is done for identification of bacteria or infective agents,
- To identify urinary casts,
- To check crystals in urine,
- Squamose cells,
- Blood cells in urine,
- Yeast cells or parasites in urine
- Are diagnosed using Microscopic urine test.